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Passive Verben
G – Passive verbs

1) Regular verbs

a) Stem Ip

fhm ܦܗܡ Ip: fhim mёfham “to be understood” ܦܗܝܡ - ܡܷܦܗܰܡ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mëfham ܡܷܦܗܰܡ fhim ܦܗܝܡ
3. f. mëfhomo ܡܷܦܗܳܡܐ fhimo ܦܗܝܡܐ
2.  mëfhomat ܡܷܦܗܳܡܰܬ fhimat ܦܗܝܡܰܬ
1. m. mëfhamno ܡܷܦܗܰܡܢܐ fhëmno ܦܗܷܡܢܐ
1. f. mëfhomono ܡܷܦܗܳܡܳܢܐ fhimono ܦܗܝܡܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mëfhomi ܡܷܦܗܳܡܝ fhimi ܦܗܝܡܝ
2. mëfhomitu ܡܷܦܗܳܡܝܬܘ fhimitu ܦܗܝܡܝܬܘ
1. mëfhomina ܡܷܦܗܳܡܝܢܰܐ fhimina ܦܗܝܡܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mëfham! ܡܷܦܗܰܡmëfhemu! ܡܷܦܗܶܡܘ

 

b) Stem IIp

zbn ܙܒܢ IIp: mizabanmzaban “to be sold” ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢ - ܡܙܰܒܰܢ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mizaban ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢ mzaban ܡܙܰܒܰܢ
3. f. mizabno ܡܝܙܰܒܢܐ mzabno ܡܙܰܒܢܐ
2.  mizabnat ܡܝܙܰܒܢܰܬ mzabnat ܡܙܰܒܢܰܬ
1. m. mizabanno ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢܢܐ mzabanno ܡܙܰܒܰܢܢܐ
1. f. mizabnono ܡܝܙܰܒܢܳܢܐ mzabnono ܡܙܰܒܢܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mizabni ܡܝܙܰܒܢܝ mzabni ܡܙܰܒܢܝ
2. mizabnitu ܡܝܙܰܒܢܝܬܘ mzabnitu ܡܙܰܒܢܝܬܘ
1. mizabnina ܡܝܙܰܒܢܝܢܰܐ mzabnina ܡܙܰܒܢܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mizaban! ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢmizabenu! ܡܝܙܰܒܶܢܘ

 

c) Stem IIIp

ltm ܠܬܡ IIIp: mitaltammtaltam “to be gathered” ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡ - ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitaltam ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡ mtaltam ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡ
3. f. mitaltmo ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܐ mtaltmo ܡܬܰܠܬܡܐ
2.  mitaltmat ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܰܬ mtaltmat ܡܬܰܠܬܡܰܬ
1. m. mitaltamno ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡܢܐ mtaltamno ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡܢܐ
1. f. mitaltmono ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܳܢܐ mtaltmono ܡܬܰܠܬܡܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitaltmi ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܝ mtaltmi ܡܬܰܠܬܡܝ
2. mitaltmitu ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܝܬܘ mtaltmitu ܡܬܰܠܬܡܝܬܘ
1. mitaltmina ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܝܢܰܐ mtaltmina ܡܬܰܠܬܡܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitaltam! ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡmitaltemu! ܡܝܬܰܠܬܶܡܘ

 

2) Verbs with /ʾ/ ܐ as first root consonant

a) Stem Ip

ʾxl ܐܟ݂ܠ Ip: mëtxal txil "to be eaten" ܡܷܬܟ݂ܰܠ - ܬܟ݂ܝܠ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mëtxal ܡܷܬܟ݂ܰܠ txil ܬܟ݂ܝܠ
3. f. mëtxolo ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܐ txilo ܬܟ݂ܝܠܐ
2.  mëtxolat ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܰܬ txilat ܬܟ݂ܝܠܰܬ
1. m. mëtxalno ܡܷܬܟ݂ܰܠܢܐ txëlno ܬܟ݂ܷܠܢܐ
1. f. mëtxolono ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܳܢܐ txilono ܬܟ݂ܝܠܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mëtxoli ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܝ txili ܬܟ݂ܝܠܝ
2. mëtxolitu ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܝܬܘ txilitu ܬܟ݂ܝܠܝܬܘ
1. mëtxolina ܡܷܬܟ݂ܳܠܝܢܰܐ txilina ܬܟ݂ܝܠܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitёstacmal! ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠmitёstacmelu! ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܶܠܘ

 

b) Stem IIp

In stem IIp verbs of this category are regular.

 

c) Stem IIIp

ʾmr ܐܡܪ IIIp: mitawmarmtawmar "to be said, to be called" ܡܝܬܰܘܡܰܪ - ܡܬܰܘܡܰܪ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitawmar ܡܝܬܰܘܡܰܪ mtawmar ܡܬܰܘܡܰܪ
3. f. mitawmro ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܐ mtawmro ܡܬܰܘܡܪܐ
2.  mitawmrat ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܰܬ mtawmrat ܡܬܰܘܡܪܰܬ
1. m. mitawmarno ܡܝܬܰܘܡܰܪܢܐ mtawmrno ܡܬܰܘܡܰܪܢܐ
1. f. mitawmrono ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܳܢܐ mtawmrono ܡܬܰܘܡܪܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitawmri ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܝ mtawmri ܡܬܰܘܡܪܝ
2. mitawmritu ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܝܬܘ mtawmritu ܡܬܰܘܡܪܝܬܘ
1. mitawmrina ܡܝܬܰܘܡܪܝܢܰܐ mtawmrina ܡܬܰܘܡܪܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitawmar! ܡܝܬܰܘܡܰܪmitawmeru! ܡܝܬܰܘܡܶܪܘ

 

3) Verbs with /y/ ܝas first root consonant

a) Stem Ip

ʾḏc ܐܕ݂ܥ Ip: miḏac iḏic "to be known" ܡܝܕ݂ܰܥ - ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. miḏac ܡܝܕ݂ܰܥ iḏic ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥ
3. f. miḏoco ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܐ iḏico ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܐ
2.  miḏocat ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܐ iḏicat ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܰܬ
1. m. miḏacno ܡܝܕ݂ܰܥܢܐ iḏëcno ܐܝܕ݂ܷܥܢܐ
1. f. miḏocono ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܳܢܐ iḏicono ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. miḏoci ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܝ iḏici ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܝ
2. miḏocitu ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܝܬܘ iḏicitu ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܝܬܘ
1. miḏocina ܡܝܕ݂ܳܥܝܢܰܐ iḏicina ܐܝܕ݂ܝܥܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: miḏac! ܡܝܕ݂ܰܥmiḏecu! ܡܝܕ݂ܶܥܘ

 

b) Stem IIp

In stem IIp verbs of this category are regular.

 

c) Stem IIIp

ylf ܝܠܦ IIIp: mitawlafmtawlaf "to be taught" ܡܝܬܰܘܠܰܦ - ܡܬܰܘܠܰܦ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitawlaf ܡܝܬܰܘܠܰܦ mtawlaf ܡܬܰܘܠܰܦ
3. f. mitawlfo ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܐ mtawlfo ܡܬܰܘܠܦܐ
2.  mitawlfat ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܰܬ mtawlfat ܡܬܰܘܠܦܰܬ
1. m. mitawlafno ܡܝܬܰܘܠܰܦܢܐ mtawlfno ܡܬܰܘܠܰܦܢܐ
1. f. mitawlfono ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܳܢܐ mtawlfono ܡܬܰܘܠܦܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitawlfi ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܝ mtawlfi ܡܬܰܘܠܦܝ
2. mitawlfitu ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܝܬܘ mtawlfitu ܡܬܰܘܠܦܝܬܘ
1. mitawlfina ܡܝܬܰܘܠܦܝܢܰܐ mtawlfina ܡܬܰܘܠܦܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitawlaf! ܡܝܬܰܘܠܰܦmitawlefu! ܡܝܬܰܘܠܶܦܘ

 

4) Verbs with /y/ ܝ as second root consonant

a) Stem Ip

sym ܣܝܡ Ip: misam - sim "to be made" ܡܝܣܰܡ - ܣܝܡ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. misam ܡܝܣܰܡ sim ܣܝܡ
3. f. misomo ܡܝܣܳܡܐ simo ܣܝܡܐ
2.  misomat ܡܝܣܳܡܰܬ simat ܣܝܡܰܬ
1. m. misamno ܡܝܣܰܡܢܐ sëmno ܣܷܡܢܐ
1. f. misomono ܡܝܣܳܡܳܢܐ simono ܣܝܡܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. misomi ܡܝܣܳܡܝ simi ܣܝܡܝ
2. misomitu ܡܝܣܳܡܝܬܘ simitu ܣܝܡܝܬܘ
1. misomina ܡܝܣܳܡܝܢܰܐ simina ܣܝܡܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: misam! ܡܝܣܰܡmisemu! ܡܝܣܶܡܘ

 

b) Stem IIp

In stem IIp verbs of this category are regular.

 

c) Stem IIIp

kyl ܟܝܠ IIIp: mitakëlmtakël "to be measured" ܡܝܬܰܟܷܠ - ܡܬܰܟܷܠ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitakël ܡܝܬܰܟܷܠ mtakël ܡܬܰܟܷܠ
3. f. mitakilo ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܐ mtakilo ܡܬܰܟܝܠܐ
2.  mitakilat ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܰܬ mtakilat ܡܬܰܟܝܠܰܬ
1. m. mitakilno ܡܝܬܰܟܰܠܢܐ mtakalno ܡܬܰܟܰܠܢܐ
1. f. mitakilono ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܳܢܐ mtakilono ܡܬܰܟܝܠܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitakili ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܝ mtakili ܡܬܰܟܝܠܝ
2. mitakilitu ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܝܬܘ mtakilitu ܡܬܰܟܝܠܝܬܘ
1. mitakilina ܡܝܬܰܟܝܠܝܢܰܐ mtakilina ܡܬܰܟܝܠܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitakël! ܡܝܬܰܟܷܠmitakelu! ܡܝܬܰܟܶܠܘ

 

5) Verbs with /y/ ܝ as third root consonant

a) Stem Ip

ḥzy ܚܙܝ Ip: mëḥze - ḥazi "to be seen, to appear" ܡܷܚܙܶܐ - ܚܰܙܝ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mëḥze ܡܷܚܙܶܐ ḥazi ܚܰܙܝ
3. f. mëḥzoyo ܡܷܚܙܳܝܐ ḥazyo ܚܰܙܝܐ
2. m. mëḥzoyat ܡܷܚܙܳܝܰܬ ḥazat ܚܰܙܰܬ
2. f. mëḥzoyat ܡܷܚܙܳܝܰܬ ḥazyat ܚܰܙܝܰܬ
1. m. mëḥzeno ܡܷܚܙܶܢܐ ḥazino ܚܰܙܝܢܐ
1. f. mëḥzoyono ܡܷܚܙܳܝܳܢܐ ḥazyono ܚܰܙܝܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mëḥzoyi ܡܷܚܙܳܝܝ ḥazën ܚܰܙܷܢ
2. mëḥzoyitu ܡܷܚܙܳܝܝܬܘ ḥazitu ܚܰܙܝܬܘ
1. mëḥzoyina ܡܷܚܙܳܝܝܢܰܐ ḥazina ܚܰܙܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: ḥzay! ܡܷܚܙܰܝmëḥzeyu! ܡܷܚܙܶܝܘ

 

b) Stem IIp

ksy ܟܣܝ IIp: mikase – mkase "to be covered, to be hidden" ܡܝܟܰܣܶܐ - ܡܟܰܣܶܐ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mikase ܡܝܟܰܣܶܐ mkase ܡܟܰܣܶܐ
3. f. mikasyo ܡܝܟܰܣܝܐ mkasyo ܡܟܰܣܝܐ
2. m. mikasat ܡܝܟܰܣܰܬ mkasat ܡܟܰܣܰܬ
2. f. mikasyat ܡܝܟܰܣܝܰܬ mkasyat ܡܟܰܣܝܰܬ
1. m. mikaseno ܡܝܟܰܣܶܢܐ mkaseno ܡܟܰܣܶܢܐ
1. f. mikasyono ܡܝܟܰܣܝܳܢܐ mkasyono ܡܟܰܣܝܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mikasën ܡܝܟܰܣܷܢ mkasën ܡܟܰܣܷܢ
2. mikasitu ܡܝܟܰܣܝܬܘ mkasitu ܡܟܰܣܝܬܘ
1. mikasina ܡܝܟܰܣܝܢܰܐ mkasina ܡܟܰܣܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mikasay! ܡܝܟܰܣܰܝmikaseyu! ܡܝܟܰܣܶܝܘ

 

c) Stem IIIp

kly ܟܠܝ IIIp: mitakle – mtakle "to be stopped" ܡܝܬܰܟܠܶܐ - ܡܬܰܟܠܶܐ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitakle ܡܝܬܰܟܠܶܐ mtakle ܡܬܰܟܠܶܐ
3. f. mitaklyo ܡܝܬܰܟܠܝܐ mtaklyo ܡܬܰܟܠܝܐ
2. m. mitaklat ܡܝܬܰܟܠܰܬ mtaklat ܡܬܰܟܠܰܬ
2. f. mitaklyat ܡܝܬܰܟܠܝܰܬ mtaklyat ܡܬܰܟܠܝܰܬ
1. m. mitakleno ܡܝܬܰܟܠܶܢܐ mtakleno ܡܬܰܟܠܶܢܐ
1. f. mitaklyono ܡܝܬܰܟܠܝܳܢܐ mtaklyono ܡܬܰܟܠܝܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitaklën ܡܝܬܰܟܠܷܢ mtaklën ܡܬܰܟܠܷܢ
2. mitaklitu ܡܝܬܰܟܠܝܬܘ mtaklitu ܡܬܰܟܠܝܬܘ
1. mitaklina ܡܝܬܰܟܠܝܢܰܐ mtaklina ܡܬܰܟܠܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitaklay! ܡܝܬܰܟܠܰܝmitakleyu! ܡܝܬܰܟܠܶܝܘ

 

6) Verbs with four and more root consonants

stcml Ip:  ܣܬܥܡܠ (< cml ܥܡܠ): mitёstacmalmtëstacmal "to be used" ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠ - ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠ

    Present base Preterite
Sg. 3. m. mitёstacmal ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠ mtëstacmal ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠ
3. f. mitёstacmlo ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܐ mtëstacmlo ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܐ
2. mitёstacmlat ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܰܬ mtëstacmlat ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܰܬ
1. m. mitёstacmalno ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠܢܐ mtëstacmalno ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠܢܐ
1. f. mitёstacmlono ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܳܢܐ mtëstacmlono ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܳܢܐ
Pl. 3. mitёstacmli ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝ mtëstacmli ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝ
2. mitёstacmlitu ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝܬܘ mtëstacmlitu ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝܬܘ
1. mitёstacmlina ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝܢܰܐ mtëstacmlina ܡܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܠܝܢܰܐ

Imperative: mitёstacmal! ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܰܠmitёstacmelu! ܡܝܬܷܣܬܰܥܡܶܠܘ