|a) Verbs with a second weak radical (hollow verbs)
Verbs with a /y/ ܝ respectively /w/ ܘ as second weak radical belong to the hollow verbs such as:
soyam - sёmle ܣܳܝܰܡ – ܣܷܡܠܶܗ „to do, make“ (sym ܣܝܡ)
towar - twёrle ܬܳܘܰܪ – ܬܘܷܪܠܶܗ „break (tr.)“ (twr ܬܘܪ < tbr ܬܒܪ)
ṣoyam - ṣayёm ܨܳܝܰܡ – ܨܰܝܷܡ „to fast“ (ṣym ܨܝܡ < ṣwm ܨܘܡ)
ṭoyar - ṭayёr ܛܳܝܰܪ – ܛܰܝܷܪ „to fly“ (ṭyr ܛܝܪ)
The difference from strong verbs can be observed especially in the preterite base of transitive stem I verbs (see above). The present base (soyam ܣܳܝܰܡ, ṭoyar ܛܳܝܰܪ) of all such verbs as well the preterite of all intransitive verbs (ṣayёm ܨܰܝܷܡ, ṭayёr ܛܰܝܷܪ) follows the same pattern as strong verbs. Note that in conjugating such verbs the first vowel of the present base is regularly /o/ ܳ in an open syllable (soyam ܣܳܝܰܡ resp. towar ܬܳܘܰܪ) and /a/ ܰ in a closed syllable (saymo ܣܰܝܡܐ resp. tawro ܬܰܘܪܐ).
1. Verbs with /y/ ܝ as second radical
Below you find a table giving the conjugation in the present and preterite of soyam – sёmle ܣܳܝܰܡ –ܣܷܡܠܶܗ “to do, to make” as an example for transitive verbs and ṭoyar - ṭayёr ܛܳܝܰܪ – ܛܰܝܷܪ “to fly” for intransitive verbs.
2. Verbs with /w/ ܘ as second radical
Medial /w/ ܘ verbs are inflected like strong verbs. The present tense is formed similarly to medial /y/ ܝ verbs:
twr ܬܘܪ I: towar – twёrle ܬܳܘܰܪ – ܬܘܷܪܠܶܗ „to break (tr.)“
swcܣܘܥ I: sowac – sawёc ܣܳܘܰܥ – ܣܰܘܷܥ „to be satiated“
3. Further remarks
Stem II verbs belonging to this class are conjugated like strong verbs:
mcayar - mcayarle ܡܥܰܝܰܪ – ܡܥܰܝܰܪܠܶܗ „to install; to designate“
mġayar - mġayarle ܡܓ݂ܰܝܰܪ – ܡܓ݂ܰܝܰܪܠܶܗ „to (ex)change“
mšayal – mšayele ܡܫܰܝܰܠ – ܡܫܰܝܶܠܶܗ „to ask“
mṣawar - mṣawarle ܡܨܰܘܰܪ – ܡܨܰܘܰܪܠܶܗ „to photograph; to copy“
mšawaš - mšawašle ܡܫܰܘܰܫ – ܡܫܰܘܰܫܠܶܗ „to confuse“
mjawab – mjawable ܡܔܰܘܰܒ – ܡܔܰܘܰܒܠܶܗ „to answer“
This also holds for the (medio)passive of stem I verbs with /w/ ܘ as second radical:
mёtwar - twir ܡܷܬܘܰܪ – ܬܘܝܪ „be broken; break (intr.)“
However, /y/ ܝ disappears in the inflection of medial /y/ ܝ verbs in both the present and preterite:
misam - sim ܡܝܣܰܡ – ܣܝܡ „be made, be done“
The bases of stem III and IIIp are:
III (sym ܣܝܡ): masёm – masёmle ܡܰܣܷܡ – ܡܰܣܷܡܠܶܗ „to have sb. make/do“
IIIp (kyl ܟܝܠ): mitakal - mtakal ܡܝܬܰܟܰܠ – ܡܬܰܟܰܠ „to be measured“
Names for professions are formed in Surayt according to the following patterns:
1. Cawodo ܥܰܘܳܕܐ, f. cawadto ܥܰܘܰܕܬܐ, pl. cawode ܥܰܘܳܕܶܐ
This is the most common pattern for profession names. They often go back to the equivalent verbal root:
There is no corresponding verb for a few of these designations, generally loanwords or innovations:
2. Mzabnono ܡܙܰܒܢܳܢܐ, f. mzabnoniṯo ܡܙܰܒܢܳܢܝܬ݂ܐ, Pl. mzabnone ܡܙܰܒܢܳܢܶܐ
These forms show an initial m- ܡـ and the suffix -ono ܳܢܐ, f. -oniṯo ـܳܢܝܬ݂ܐ and Pl. one ܳܢܶܐ, which are derived from stem II and III verbs.
3. Yolufo ܝܳܠܘܦܐ, f. yolufto ܝܳܠܘܦܬܐ, Pl. yolufe ܝܳܠܘܦܶܐ
A minor group of professions follow the pattern below:
4. Suffix –či/-ji ܫ̰ܝ/ܔܝ
By convention, some profession nouns take the suffix –či/-ji ܫ̰ܝ/ܔܝ:
Many other profession nouns are innovations, mostly from Syriac, among them:
c) Countries, languages, and nationalities
Names for countries, languages and nationalities are written with initial capital in Surayt.
Several m.sg. and pl. nouns designating countries take the definite article:
Other nouns for countries are grammatically feminine when they do not take the definite article.
2. More country names
4. Languages and nationalities ـܳܝܶܐ
Languages and nationalities are mainly formed by adding the gentilic suffix m. –oyo ـܳܝܳܐ, f. –ayto ܰـܰܝܬܐ, Pl. –oye ܳـܳܝܶܐ to the corresponding country name:
NOnly the first form (m. sg.) above is used to denote the language: Almanoyo ܐܰܠܡܰܢܳܝܐ „German“.
Several languages have no matching modern country name: