a) The verb: The base of the present tense
The verb in Surayt has one base for both the present tense and the future tense, which is called the present base. The present base can either appear as domax-/dëmx- ܕܳܡܰܟ݂ـ ܆ ܕܷܡܟ݂ـ „to sleep“ and goraš-/gurš- ܓܳܪܰܫـ ܆ ܓܘܪܫـ „to pull“. The following endings are attached to the present base in order to indicate the different persons:
It is important to note that in the 3rd and 1st person singular the masculine and feminine forms differ from each other, whereas it is not distinguished between the genders in the 2nd person. As to the plural, there is generally only one form for both grammatical genders.
Using the example of the verb domax ܕܳܡܰܟ݂ „to sleep“ the present base appears in the following forms:
The vowel /ë –ܷ–/ in forms with the present base dëmx- ܕܷܡܟ݂ـ݂ can appear as /u ܘ/ like goraš ܓܳܪܰܫ „to pull“, gurš- ܓܘܪܫـ:
All regular verbs form the present base in this manner. These forms are used in subordinate clauses (following the conjunction d ܕ) and when expressing a will, a wanting or a possibility:
In Surayt, the present base (e.g. goraš ܓܳܪܰܫ / guršo ܓܘܪܫܐ, domax ܕܳܡܰܟܼ /dëmxo ܕܷܡܟ݂ܐ) is also the citation form according to which words are listed in glossaries from later units on.
b) The Verb: the present tense and the future tense
The present base goraš ܓܳܪܰܫ is only determined in tense by means of the verb modifiers ko- ܟܳـ and gëd ܓܷܕ In order to mark the present tense ko- ܟܳـ precedes the present base; in order to mark the future tense, gëd ܓܷܕ precedes the present base: