a) Initial weak verbs
1. Initial /ʾ/ (Olaf ܐ) verbs
Initial Olaf ܐ is retained in the Syriac script after the modifier k- ܟـ (G17.a) and negator lo (G16.b) respectively l- (G22.e): lišono Almanoyo lëḏciwa ܠܝܫܳܢܐ ܐܰܠܡܰܢܳܝܐ ܠܷܐܕ݂ܥܝܘܰܐ „They didn’t know German“.
ʾbc ܐܒܥ I (< bʿy ܒܥܝ): obac – abёc ܐܳܒܰܥ – ܐܰܒܷܥ „to want“
ʾḏc ܐܕ݂ܥ (< ydʿ ܝܕܥ) I: oḏac – aḏёc ܐܳܕ݂ܰܥ – ܐܰܕ݂ܷܥ „to know“
The glottal stop of roots with initial /ʾ/ (Olaf ܐ) is realized in the following stem II verbs:
ʾmr ܐܡܪ II: mʾamar - mʾamarle ܡܐܰܡܰܪ – ܡܐܰܡܰܪܠܶܗ „to command“,
ʾṯr ܐܬ݂ܪ II: mʾaṯar - mʾaṯarle ܡܐܰܬ݂ܰܪ – ܡܐܰܬ݂ܰܪܠܶܗ „to influence“.
The glottal stop is ignored in Latin spelling. The above forms are written mamar – mamarle respectively maṯar - maṯarle. Regarding stem III verbs, see Section 4.
2. Initial /y/ (Yuḏ ܝ) verbs
Intransitive verbs of this category belonging to stem I are conjugated like strong verbs (G8.a): ylf ܝܠܦ I: yolaf – yalёf ܝܳܠܰܦ – ܝܰܠܷܦ „to learn“.
The same holds for transitive verbs in the present base. In the preterite they have an initial i- which is written as ܐܝ in the Syriac script:
ynq ܝܢܩ I: yonaq – inёqle ܝܳܢܰܩ – ܐܝܢܷܩܠܶܗ „to suckle“
The verb yoraṯ - irëṯle ܝܳܪܰܬ݂ – ܐܝܪܷܬ݂ܠܶܗ „to inherit” is inflected in the same way. All initial /y/ ܝ verbs belonging to stem II are inflected like strong verbs:
yqr ܝܩܪ II: myaqar – myaqarle ܡܝܰܩܰܪ – ܡܝܰܩܰܪܠܶܗ „to honour, to respect“
Regarding stem II, see Section 4.
3. Initial /w/ (Waw ܘ) verbs
Initial /w/ܘ verbs do not occur in stem I. Stem II is conjugated like strong verbs:
wṣf ܘܨܦ II: mwaṣaf - mwaṣafle ܡܘܰܨܰܦ – ܡܘܰܨܰܦܠܶܗ „to ascribe praise; to describe“
wbx ܘܒܟ݂ II: mwabax – mwabaxle ܡܘܰܒܰܟ݂ – ܡܘܰܒܰܟ݂ܠܶܗ „to warn“
Regarding stem III, see Section 4.
4. Stems III and IIIp of initial weak verbs
Initial weak verbs are all treated in the same way in these stems. The weak radical appears as /w/ ܘ everywhere:
ʾkl ܐܟܠ III: mawkal – mawkele ܡܰܘܟܰܠ – ܡܰܘܟܶܠܶܗ „to feed, to supply with rations“
IIIp: mitawkal – mtawkal ܡܝܬܰܘܟܰܠ – ܡܬܰܘܟܰܠ „to be fed“
ylf ܝܠܦ III: mawlaf – mawlafle ܡܰܘܠܰܦ – ܡܰܘܠܰܦܠܶܗ „to teach“
IIIp: mitawlaf – mtawlaf ܡܝܬܰܘܠܰܦ – ܡܬܰܘܠܰܦ „to be taught“
ʾḏc ܐܕ݂ܥ III: mawḏac - mawḏacle ܡܰܘܕ݂ܰܥ – ܡܰܘܕ݂ܰܥܠܶܗ „to inform, to make known“
IIIp: mitawḏac - mtawḏac ܡܝܬܰܘܕ݂ܰܥ – ܡܬܰܘܕ݂ܰܥ „be made known“
The verb nfq ܢܦܩ I: nofaq – nafёq ܢܳܦܰܩ – ܢܰܦܷܩ „to go out, to exit, to leave“ is also weak in stem III and IIIp. The initial /n/ ܢـ disappears and the verb is inflected like initial weak verbs:
nfq ܢܦܩ III: mawfaq – mawfaqle ܡܰܘܦܰܩ – ܡܰܘܦܰܩܠܶܗ „to let out; to drive off“
(instead of manfaq – manfaqle ܡܰܢܦܰܩ – ܡܰܢܦܰܩܠܶܗ)
IIIp: mitawfaq – mtawfaq ܡܝܬܰܘܦܰܩ – ܡܬܰܘܦܰܩ „to be let out; to be driven off“
(instead of mitanfaq – mtanfaq ܡܝܬܰܢܦܰܩ – ܡܬܰܢܦܰܩ)
The diphthong /aw/ ـܰܘin stem III forms can be simplified to /o/ by way of variation: mokal ܡܳܟܰܠ (instead of mawkal ܡܰܘܟܰܠ), molaf ܡܳܠܰܦ (instead of mawlaf ܡܰܘܠܰܦ), moḏac ܡܳܕ݂ܰܥ (instead of mawḏac ܡܰܘܕ݂ܰܥ).
b) Adverbs of time and place
1. Adverbs of time
The following adverbs of time are among the most frequent:
Some adjectives can be used adverbially:
The accented prefix ad- ܐܰܕ..., can be added to a few adverbs of time. They express a time with reference to the moment of speaking:
The adverb annaqla ܐܰܢܢܰܩܠܰܐ „now“ with word initial stress also belongs to this group.
The following adverbials of time and frequency have the plural ending -awoṯe:
2. Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place are as follows:
3. Other adverbs
There are other adverbs apart from the temporal and locative adverbials mentioned above, for example the following adverbs of manner, condition and degree:
4. Examples of the use of the adverbs
The definite article was already introduced in G3.a. The noun without an article is indefinite, f. ex. kṯowo ܟܬ݂ܳܘܐ „“(a) book“ as opposed to u kṯowo ܐܘ ܟܬ݂ܳܘܐ „the book“. The indefiniteness can be marked additionally by the number “one” m. ḥa ܚܰܐ, f. ḥḏo ܚܕ݂ܐ.