a) Verbs with four or more radicals
1. Regular verbs
Verbs with four root consonants are formed according to the scheme of Stem II. Frequently occurring neologisms belong to this class, such as mtalfan - mtalfanle ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ - ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ „to telephone“, mparkar – mparkarle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪܠܶܗ „to park“, mrašmal – mrašmele ܡܪܰܫܡܰܠ - ܡܪܰܫܡܶܠܶܗ „to finance“, mšawšaṭ - mšawšaṭle ܡܫܰܘܫܰܛ - ܡܫܰܘܫܰܛܠܶܗ „to develop (tr.)“ in addition to older loan words such as msayṭar - msayṭarle ܡܣܰܝܛܰܪ - ܡܣܰܝܛܰܪܠܶܗ „to control“, mqayzan - mqayzanle ܡܩܰܝܙܰܢ - ܡܩܰܝܙܰܢܠܶܗ „to win“, mpartak – mpartakle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܬܰܟ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܬܰܟܠܶܗ „to pluck (feathers, hair)“.
Using the example of mtalfan – mtalfanle ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ – ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ here the inflectional paradigms of the present and preterite are illustrated:
b) Irregular verbs
Historically, irregular verbs have at least one weak consonant in the root. We consider primarily the consonants /ʾ/ (olaf ܐ), /w/ (waw ܘ), /y/ (yuḏ ܝ), as weak, which are to an extent no longer recognizable in Surayt. According to the position of the weak consonant in the root, three types of weak verbs can be distinguished: 1. verbs with a weak initial root consonant (radical), 2. verbs with a weak second radical, and 3. verbs with a weak third radical. There are also verbs which include two weak radicals in the root. Many of the most frequently occurring verbs in Surayt belong to this category.
Verbs with /l-/ ܠ as a final consonant undergo minor changes upon taking the l-suffixes in the preterite, and therefore they are included in the irregular verb category.
The inflection of the irregular verbs is only dealt with at level B of this course. An overview can already be found here in the section "verb conjugation" in the appendix.
c) Modern constructions and borrowings of the verbs
The necessity of procuring a place in Surayt for everyday language use, presses its speakers to the construction of neologisms. Indeed the formation of new verbs is not practiced everywhere in the same manner and can manifest in a variety of forms.
1. As a rule new verbs are formed according to the scheme of Stem II, as demonstrated in the aforementioned verbs mtalfan – mtalfanle ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ – ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ „to telephone“ and mparkar – mparkarle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪܠܶܗ „to park“. Further such verbs include
mšamas – mšamasle ܡܫܰܡܰܣ - ܡܫܰܡܰܣܠܶܗ „to sunbathe“
mfakas – mfakasle ܡܦܰܟܰܤ - ܡܦܰܟܰܣܠܶܗ „to fax“
mvayaz – mvayazle ܡܒ݂ܰܝܰܙ - ܡܒ݂ܰܝܰܙܠܶܗ „to apply for a visa“
mdawaš – mdawašle ܡܕܰܘܰܫ - ܡܕܰܘܰܫܠܶܗ „to shower“
msafar – msafarle ܡܣܰܦܰܪ - ܡܣܰܦܰܪܠܶܗ „to travel“
2. A second much more common method of verb formation presents itself as the composite of the helping verb soyam – sёmle ܣܳܝܰܡ - ܣܷܡܠܶܗ „to make, to do“ together with the foreign noun or the infinitive:
d) The Imperative
1. The imperative of regular verbs
The imperative has one respective form for singular and plural. Whereas the singular form is used with no suffix, the plural form is distinguished by way of a –u ـܘ at the end. Regular verbs have the following imperative forms:
2. Negation of the imperative
The imperative is negated with the help of lo + base form of the present in the second person (sg. and pl. respectively):
e) Object marking in the present I
In the present the object is expressed through an object particle that follows the verb, which can however also be attached to the verb as a suffix. As an independent particle, the object has the following forms:
Much more frequent is the attachment of the object to the verb form as a suffix. This can change both the verb form and the object marker. For clarification here the suffixes of present form, 1. f. / m. in the singular: