The Verbal Inflection in Stem III
a) The Verbal Inflection in Stem III1. Present inflection
As in the other stems the present base has two forms in Stem III: maltam- ܡܰܠܬܰܡـ before consonant-initial inflectional suffixes and maltm- ܡܰܠܬܡـ before vowel-initial inflectional suffixes:
When the base precedes vowel-initial suffixes, maltm- ܡܰܠܬܡـ the consonantal cluster -ltm- ـܠܰܬܡـ is split with the aid of an epenthetic vowel, /a/ or /ё/ to -latm- ـܠܰܬܡـ respectively -lёtm- ـܠܷܬܡـ: komadamxi an nacime ܟܳܡܰܕܰܡܟ݂ܝ ܐܰܢ ܢܰܥܝܡܶܐ „they put the children to sleep“, gёd macёzmina am morayḏan ܓܷܕ ܡܰܥܷܙܡܝܢܰܐ ܐܰܡ ܡܳܪܰܝܕ݂ܰܢ „we will invite our relatives“.
Examples for present and future in Stem III:
2) Preterite inflection
As in Stem II the preterite in Stem III also has only one base, maltam- ܡܰܠܬܰܡـ and the form corresponds to the present. A distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs does not exist. With the inflectional suffixes using the example maltam ܡܰܠܬܰܡ the preterite has the following forms:
Examples for the preterite in Stem III:
b) The passive verb stems and the passive verb
1. Alongside the active, there are also three passive verb stems in Surayt. As each of the passive verb stems can correspond to an active verb stem, they are designated with Ip, IIp, and IIIp. These stems can be interpreted as the continuation of the t-stems of old Aramaic, namely Eṯpʿel ܐܶܬ݂ܦܥܶܠ (= Ip), Eṯpaʿʿal ܐܶܬ݂ܦ݁ܰܥܰܠ (=IIp) and Ettafʿal ܐܶܬ݁ܬ݁ܰܦ݂ܥܰܠ (IIIp).
The principle of conjugation in the passive verb stems corresponds to that in the active verb stems. The passive stems have their own inflectional bases. During inflection, the passive verbs take the same suffix series as the present in both the present and the preterite (see G.7a). In this regard, they are similar to the intransitive verbs.
The following table provides an overview of the present and preterite bases in passive verb stems in comparison to the active forms:
The first form precedes consonant-initial inflectional suffixes, and the second precedes vowel-initial inflectional suffixes. In IIIp (as also in III) if the base precedes a vowel-initial suffix, it can have a free variant with a break in the consonant cluster, present: mitacamr- ܡܝܬܰܥܰܡܪـ and preterite: mtacamr- ܡܬܰܥܰܡܪـ.
2. For each active verb, a passive verb can be formed. The active verb expresses active voice, for example u zlam koqolaf u ḥabušo ܐܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ ܟܳܩܳܠܰܦ ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ „the man peels the apple“. The passive verb describes the action from another perspective. The actual subject (here: u zlam ܙܠܰܐܡܐܘ „the man”) is not expressed in the passive. It is replaced by a new subject (u ḥabušo ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ „der Apfel“). In this way, it is expressed that the apple became peeled. Whoever peeled the apple plays no role. When necessary, this can be supplemented with help from mu ṭaraf d- ܕܡܘ ܛܰܪܰܦ „by way of“ or the abbreviated me- ܡܶܐ „through, by, via“: u ḥabušo komёqlaf mu ṭaraf du zlam ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ ܟܳܡܷܩܠܰܦ ܡܘ ܛܰܪܰܦ ܕܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ or u ḥabušo komёqlaf mu zlam ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ ܟܳܡܷܩܠܰܦ ܡܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ „the apple is peeled by the man“.
3. Several intransitive and reflexive verbs are formed in the same manner as passive verbs. High frequency verbs such as mёjġal – jġil ܡܷܔܓ݂ܰܠ - ܔܓ݂ܝܠ „to speak“, mibaṭ - biṭ ܡܝܒܰܛ - ܒܝܛ „to explode“, mёfṣaḥ - fṣiḥ ܡܷܦܨܰܚ - ܦܨܝܚ „to be happy“, mёfraš – friš ܡܷܦܪܰܫ - ܦܪܝܫ „to separate, break off“ also belong in this category.
c) Verb inflexion in passive stem I1. Present inflection
The regular verbs of the passive Stem I are inflected in the present according to the example of mёfham – fhim ܡܷܦܗܰܡ - ܦܗܝܡ (fhm ܦܗܡ Ip) „to be understood“ as follows:
Examples of passive Stem I in the present:
2. Preterite inflection
The base of the preterite in passive Stem I verbs is identical to that of the active Stem I verbs. Indeed the passive verbs in the preterite take the same inflectional suffixes as those of the present. Here is the paradigm of the example fhim ܦܗܝܡ „to be understood“:
The /i/ in the third person m.sg. (fhim ܦܗܝܡ , griš ܓܪܝܫ , jġil ܔܓ݂ܝܠ etc.) is, contrary to the rule for closed syllables, always long.
Examples of the preterite passive Stem I: