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Grammar 9

a) “there is” und “there is not”

For „there is“ Surayt uses the particle kit ܟܝܬ (long /i ܝ/) or alternatively kito ܟܝܬܐ which has the same meaning:

bu banyo kit duš there is a shower in the bathroom ܒܘ ܒܰܐܢܝܐ ܟܝܬ ܕܘܫ
bi šato kit arbco šuḥlofe there are four seasons in a year ܒܝ ܫܰܬܐ ܟܝܬ ܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܫܘܚܠܳܦܶܐ
b kul šuḥlofo kit tloṯo yarḥe there are three months in each season ܒܟܘܠ ܫܘܚܠܳܦܐ ܟܝܬ ܬܠܳܬ݂ܐ ܝܰܪܚܶܐ
kito kṯowe tamo there are books there ܟܝܬܐ ܟܬ݂ܳܘܶܐ ܬܰܡܐ
For “there is not” layt ܠܰܝܬ alternatively layto ܠܰܝܬܐ is used:
layto mede harke there is nothing here ܠܰܝܬܐ ܡܶܕܶܐ ܗܰܪܟܶܐ
layt qëṭro there is no problem ܠܰܝܬ ܩܷܛܪܐ
dlo mena layt ḥaye without her there is no life ܕܠܐ ܡܶܢܰܗ ܠܰܝܬ ܚܰܝܶܐ

b) “to have” and “not to have”

1. The verb “to have” is formed by means of the particle kët- ܟܷܬ to which a preterite suffix (cf. Grammar 8a.1) is appended:

  Singular Plural
3rd Person (m.) këtle he has ܟܷܬܠܶܗ këtte they have ܟܷܬܬܶܗ
3rd Person (f.) këtla she has ܟܷܬܠܰܗ
2nd Person (m.) këtlux you (m.) have ܟܷܬܠܘܟ݂ këtxu you (Pl.) have ܟܷܬܟ݂ܘ
2nd Person (f.) këtlax you (f.) have ܟܷܬܠܰܟ݂
1st Person këtli I have ܟܷܬܠܝ këtlan we have ܟܷܬܠܰܢ

Examples:

kmo yolufe këtxu bu sëdro? How many students do you (pl.) have in the class? ܟܡܐ ܝܳܠܘܦܶܐ ܟܷܬܟ݂ܘ ܒܘ ܣܷܕܪܐ؟
cal d këtli ḥawrone Suryoye because I have Syriac friends ܥܰܠ ܕܟܷܬܠܝ ܚܰܘܪܳܢܶܐ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܶܐ
këtle yolufe Holandoye he has Dutch students ܟܷܬܠܶܗ ܝܳܠܘܦܶܐ ܗܳܠܰܢܕܳܝܶܐ
kmo aḥunone w ḥoṯoṯe këtlax? how many brothers and sisters do you (f) have? ܟܡܐ ܐܰܚܘܢܳܢܶܐ ܘܚܳܬ݂ܳܬ݂ܶܐ ܟܷܬܠܰܟ݂؟
aš šurone këtte aḏne the walls have ears ܐܰܫ ܫܘܪܳܢܶܐ ܟܷܬܬܶܗ ܐܰܕ݂ܢܶܐ
u nošo këtle ḥamšo rëġše man has five senses ܐܘ ܢܳܫܐ ܟܷܬܠܶܗ ܚܰܡܫܐ ܪܷܓ݂ܫܶܐ
kul hadomo këtle woliṯo every organ has a purpose ܟܘܠ ܗܰܕܳܡܐ ܟܷܬܠܶܗ ܘܳܠܝܬ݂ܐ
2. “Not to have” is similarly formed, however, by means of the particle lat-:
  Singular Plural
3rd Person (m.) latle he does not have ܠܰܬܠܶܗ latte they do not have ܠܰܬܬܶܗ
3rd Person (f.) latla she does not have ܠܰܬܠܰܗ
2nd Person (m.) latlux you (m.) do not have ܠܰܬܠܘܟ݂ latxu you (Pl.) do not have ܠܰܬܟ݂ܘ
2nd Person (f.) latlax you (f.) do not hast ܠܰܬܠܰܟ݂
1st Person latli I do not have ܠܰܬܠܝ latlan we do not have ܠܰܬܠܰܢ

Examples:

latte makinat modern they do not have modern machines ܠܰܬܬܶܗ ܡܰܟܝܢܰܬ ܡܳܕܶܪܢ
latli mede lë syomo I do not have anything to do ܠܰܬܠܝ ܡܶܕܶܐ ܠܷܣܝܳܡܐ
u Afrem latle wacde Afrem does not have any appointments ܐܘ ܐܰܦܪܶܡ ܠܰܬܠܶܗ ܘܰܥܕܶܐ

c) “to be”, “not to be”

The particles kët- ܟܷܬ and lat- ܠܰܬ in combination with forms of the copula verb (cf. Grammar 4b) appended to these particles, mean “to be” and “not to be” respectively. These forms are called independent copula forms:

Singular
3rd Person këtyo he/she is ܟܷܬܝܐ
2nd Person këthat you are ܟܷܬܗܰܬ
1st Person këtno I am ܟܷܬܢܐ
3rd Person latyo he/she is not ܠܰܬܝܐ
2nd Person lathat you are not ܠܰܬܗܰܬ
1st Person latno I am not ܠܰܬܢܐ
Plural
3rd Person këtne they are ܟܷܬܢܶܐ
2nd Person këthatu you are ܟܷܬܗܰܬܘ
1st Person këtna we are ܟܷܬܢܰܐ
3rd Person latne they are not ܠܰܬܢܶܐ
2nd Person lathatu you are not ܠܰܬܗܰܬܘ
1st Person latna we are not ܠܰܬܢܰܐ
Whilst këtyo ܟܷܬܝܐ is commonly used in relative clauses:
aḏëc d këtne i Saro w u Aday he knew that it was Saro and Aday ܐܰܕ݂ܷܥ ܕܟܷܬܢܶܐ ܐܝ ܣܰܪܐ ܘܐܘ ܐܰܕܰܝ
cal d këtyo u lišonayḏi because it is my language ܥܰܠ ܕܟܷܬܝܐ ܐܘ ܠܝܫܳܢܱܝܕ݂ܝ
as Suryoye d këtne b Holanda the Syriacs who are in the Netherlands ܐܣ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܶܐ ܕܟܷܬܢܶܐ ܒܗܳܠܰܢܕܰܐ
latyo ܠܰܬܝܐ generally expresses the negative copula (cf. Grammar 4b):
Positive copula
harke ne they are here ܗܰܪܟܶܐ ܢܶܐ
ḥaḏire hatu you (pl.) are ready ܚܰܕ݂ܝܪܶܐ ܗܰܬܘ
bu bayto no I am at home ܒܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܢܐ
ḥoṯi yo she is my sister ܚܳܬ݂ܝ ܝܐ
nacime na we are children ܢܰܥܝܡܶܐ ܢܰܐ
Negative copula
latne harke they are not here ܠܰܬܢܶܐ ܗܰܪܟܶܐ
lathatu ḥaḏire you (pl.) are not ready ܠܰܬܗܰܬܘ ܚܰܕ݂ܝܪܶܐ
latno bu bayto I am not at home ܠܰܬܢܐ ܒܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ
latyo ḥoṯi she is not my sister ܠܰܬܝܐ ܚܳܬ݂ܝ
latna nacime we are not children ܠܰܬܢܰܐ ܢܰܥܝܡܶܐ