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Grammar 5

a) The suffixed possessive pronoun

The possessive pronoun has two forms (cf. grammar unit 10), one independent form and one that is suffixed to the noun. The suffixed possessive pronoun has a general series and a restricted series. The latter is particularly used when speaking about relatives or body parts.

 

1. The (suffixed) possessive determiner

The general series includes the following suffixes:

  Singular Plural
1st Person -ayḏi my ـܰܝܕ݂ܝ -ayḏan our ـܰܝܕ݂ܰܢ
2nd Person

-ayḏux

-ayḏax

your (m.)

your (f.)

ـܰܝܕ݂ܘܟ݂

ـܰܝܕ݂ܰܟ݂

-aṯxu your ـܰܬ݂ܟ݂ܘ
3rd Person

-ayḏe

-ayḏa

his

her

ـܰܝܕ݂ܶܗ

ـܰܝܕ݂ܰܗ

-aṯṯe their ـܰܬ݂ܬ݂ܶܗ

Those suffixes are appended to the noun. Any vowel ending is deleted. The noun is always definite:

aṯto wife ܐܰܬ݂ܬܐ
i aṯto the wife ܐܝ ܐܰܬ݂ܬܐ
i aṯtayḏi my wife ܐܝ ܐܰܬ݂ܬܰܝܕ݂ܝ
malfono teacher ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ
u malfono the teacher ܐܘ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܐ
u malfonaṯxu your (pl.) teacher ܐܘ ܡܰܠܦܳܢܰܬ݂ܟ݂ܘ
kṯowe books ܟܬ݂ܳܘܶܐ
ak kṯowe the books ܐܟ ܟܬ݂ܳܘܶܐ
ak kṯowaṯṯe their books ܐܟ ܟܬ݂ܳܘܰܬ݂ܬ݂ܶܗ

2. The restricted series

This series is restricted to family members and body parts. Furthermore, it includes a few exceptions such as xabro ܟ݂ܰܒܪܐ „word“, ëšmo ܐܷܫܡܐ „name“, šuġlo ܫܘܓ݂ܠܐ „work“, cëmro ܥܷܡܪܐ „age“. These can also take the general suffixes. The restricted series has the following suffixes:

  Singular Plural
1st Person -i ـܝ -an ـܰܢ
2nd Person

-ux

-ax

ـܘܟ݂

ـܰܟ݂

-ayxu ـܰܝܟ݂ܘ
3rd Person

-e

-a

ـܶܗ

ـܰܗ

-ayye ـܰܝܝܶܗ

The suffix 1.pl. -an ـܰܢ can alternatively be spelled -ayna ـܰܝܢܰܐ. The suffixes of the restricted series appended to ëšmo ܐܷܫܡܐ „Name“ are as follows:

Singular Plural
ëšmi my name ܐܷܫܡܝ ëšman our name ܐܷܫܡܰܢ

ëšmux

ëšmax

your (m.) name

your (f.) name

ܐܷܫܡܘܟ݂

ܐܷܫܡܰܟ݂

ëšmayxu your name ܐܷܫܡܰܝܟ݂ܘ

ëšme

ëšma

his name

her name

ܐܷܫܡܶܗ

ܐܷܫܡܰܗ

ëšmayye their name ܐܷܫܡܰܝـܝܶܗ
Once again, the suffix is appended to the noun, which must not be determined by a definite article: By appending the suffix the ending of the noun is omitted:
ëšmo name ܐܷܫܡܐ
u ëšmo the name ܐܘ ܐܷܫܡܐ
ëšme his name ܐܷܫܡܶܗ

b) The demonstrative pronoun

The demonstrative pronoun has two forms, one that is independent and one that is appended (suffixed) to the noun.

1. The independent demonstrative pronoun

expressing close proximity expressing distance
hano this (m.sg.) ܗܰܢܐ hawo that (m.pl.) ܗܰܘܐ
haṯe this (f.sg.) ܗܰܬ݂ܶܐ hayo that (f.sg.) ܗܰܝܐ
hani these (pl.) ܗܰܢܝ hanëk those (pl.) ܗܰܢܷܟ
Examples:
haṯe i aṯtayḏi yo this is my wife ܗܰܬܼܶܐ ܐܝ ܐܰܬܼܬܰܝܕܼܝ ܝܐ
manyo hayo? who is that woman? ܡܰܢܝܐ ܗܰܝܐ؟
hani suryoye ne these are Syriacs ܗܰܢܝ ܣܘܪܝܳܝܶܐ ܢܶܐ
2. The suffixed demonstrative pronoun
expressing close proximity expressing distance
-ano this (m.sg.) ـܰܢܐ -awo that (m.sg.) ـܰܘܐ
-aṯe this (f.sg.) ـܰܬ݂ܶܐ -ayo that (f.sg.) ـܰܝܐ
-ani these (Pl.) ـܰܢܝ -anëk those (pl.) ـܰܢܷܟ
As the suffixed possessive pronouns of the general series, the suffixed demonstrative pronoun is also appended to the noun. The noun, however, is always determined by the definite article. Examples:
hërgo unit ܗܷܪܓܐ
u hërgo the unit ܐܘ ܗܷܪܓܐ
u hërgano this unit ܐܘ ܗܷܪܓܰܢܐ
iqarṯo family ܐܝܩܰܪܬ݂ܐ
i iqarṯo the family ܐܝ ܐܝܩܰܪܬ݂ܐ
i iqarṯaṯe this family ܐܝ ܐܝܩܰܪܬ݂ܰܬ݂ܶܗ
zabne times ܙܰܒܢܶܐ
az zabne the times ܐܰܙ ܙܰܒܢܶܐ
az zabnanëk those times ܐܰܙ ܙܰܒܢܰܢܷܟ