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Grammar 6

a) Pluralization: Native nouns

Native or inherited nouns are words which originated in the Aramaic language. They differ from loan words in their pattern and their pluralization. The nouns that were introduced in Grammar unit 4a belong to this category.

1. Masculine nouns

Masculine nouns ending in -o ـܐ take on the plural form -e ـܶܐ:

Singular Plural  
hërgo ܗܷܪܓܐ hërge ܗܷܪܓܶܐ unit
kṯowo ܟܬ݂ܳܘܐ kṯowe ܟܬ݂ܳܘܶܐ book
zabno ܙܰܒܢܐ zabne ܙܰܒܢܶܐ time
šaboko ܫܰܒܳܟܐ šaboke ܫܰܒܳܟܶܐ window

Some masculine nouns ending in -o ـܐ take on the plural form -one ـܳܢܶܐ:

Singular Plural  
ëšmo ܐܷܫܡܐ ëšmone ܐܷܫܡܳܢܶܐ name
ḥolo ܚܳܠܐ ḥolone ܚܳܠܳܢܶܐ uncle (maternal)
cammo ܥܰܡܡܐ cammone ܥܰܡܡܳܢܶܐ uncle (paternal)
ṭuro ܛܘܪܐ ṭurone ܛܘܪܳܢܶܐ mountain
aḥuno ܐܰܚܘܢܐ aḥunone ܐܰܚܘܢܳܢܶܐ brother

A few nouns form an irregular plural and have to be memorized, among which are:

Singular Plural  
bayto ܒܰܝܬܐ bote ܒܳܬܶܐ house
abro ܐܰܒܪܐ abne ܐܰܒܢܶܐ son
aṯro ܐܰܬ݂ܪܐ aṯrawoṯe ܐܰܬ݂ܪܰܘܳܬ݂ܶܐ country/land

2. Feminine nouns

Feminine nouns ending in -to ـܬܐ / -ṯo ـܬ݂ܐ take on the plural ending -oṯe ـܳܬ݂ܶܐ:

Singular Plural  
foṯo ܦܳܬ݂ܐ foṯoṯe ܦܳܬ݂ܳܬ݂ܶܐ face
ḥulto ܚܘܠܬܐ ḥultoṯe ܚܘܠܬܳܬ݂ܶܐ aunt (maternal)
camṯo ܥܰܡܬ݂ܐ camṯoṯe ܥܰܡܬ݂ܳܬ݂ܶܐ aunt (paternal)
qašto ܩܰܫܬܐ qaštoṯe ܩܰܫܬܳܬ݂ܶܐ grandmother
šawṯo ܫܰܘܬ݂ܐ šawṯoṯe ܫܰܘܬ݂ܳܬ݂ܶܐ district, neighbourhood

For reasons related to historical linguistics, there are a lot of exceptions:

Singular Plural  
dukṯo ܕܘܟܬ݂ܐ dëkoṯe ܕܷܟܳܬ݂ܶܐ place, spot
iqarṯo ܐܝܩܰܪܬ݂ܐ iqaryoṯe ܐܝܩܰܪܝܳܬ݂ܶܐ family
barṯo ܒܰܪܬ݂ܐ bnoṯe ܒܢܳܬ݂ܶܐ daughter, girl
qelayto ܩܶܠܰܝܬܐ qeloyoṯe ܩܶܠܳܝܳܬ݂ܶܐ room
ganṯo ܓܰܢܬ݂ܐ ganoṯe ܓܰܢܳܬ݂ܶܐ garden

Feminine nouns ending in –iṯo ـܝܬ݂ܐ take on the regular plural -yoṯe ـܳܬ݂ܶܐ and nouns ending in -uṯo ـܘܬ݂ܐ the regular plural in -woṯe ـܘܳܬ݂ܶܐ:

Singular  Plural   
malfoniṯo ܡܰܠܦܳܢܝܬ݂ܐ malfonyoṯe ܡܰܠܦܳܢܝܳܬ݂ܶܐ teacher (f.)
malkuṯo ܡܰܠܟܘܬ̣ܐ malkwoṯe ܡܰܠܟܘܳܬ̣ܶܐ kingdom

As already mentioned in grammar Unit 4a, there are feminine nouns ending in -o ـܐ that also take on the plural ending -oṯe ـܳܬ݂ܶܐ:

Singular Plural  
arco (f.) ܐܰܪܥܐ arcoṯe ܐܰܪܥܳܬ݂ܶܐ earth, field, land
emo (f.) ܐܶܡܐ emoṯe ܐܶܡܳܬ݂ܶܐ mother
cayno (f.) ܥܰܝܢܐ caynoṯe ܥܰܝܢܳܬ݂ܶܐ eye
iḏo (f.) ܐܝܕ݂ܐ iḏoṯe ܐܝܕ݂ܳܬ݂ܶܐ hand
dado (f.) ܕܰܕܐ dadoṯe ܕܰܕܳܬ݂ܶܐ aunt (wife of the paternal uncle)
barko ܒܰܪܟܐ barkoṯe ܒܰܪܟܳܬ݂ܶܐ knee
katfo ܟܰܬܦܐ katfoṯe ܟܰܬܦܳܬ݂ܶܐ shoulder

There are exceptions in which feminine nouns ending in -o ـܐ take on the masculine plural -e ـܶܐ:

Singular Plural  
kef(f.) ܟܶܦܐ kefe ܟܶܦܶܐ stone
cezo (f.) ܥܶܙܐ ceze ܥܶܙܶܐ  goat

These plurals are also irregular:

Singular Plural  
šabṯo ܫܰܒܬ݂ܐ šabe ܫܰܒܶܐ week
aṯto ܐܰܬܼܬܐ niše ܢܝܫܶܐ woman

b) Pluralization: Loan words

Loan words are words that are borrowed from other languages and incorporated into Surayt. They can be identified as originally non-Aramaic because of their pattern. Masculine loan words end in a consonant and feminine loan words end in -a ـܰܐ or -e ـܶܐ. In the plural, however, both take on the ending -at ـܰܬ.

1. Masculine loan words ending in a consonant

Singular Plural  
rastorant ܪܰܣܬܳܪܰܢܬ rastorantat ܪܰܣܬܳܪܰܢܬܰܬ restaurant
talafon ܬܰܠܰܦܳܢ talafonat ܬܰܠܰܦܳܢܰܬ phone
zlam ܙܠܰܡ zlamat ܙܠܰܡܰܬ man
aršitakt ܐܰܪܫܝܬܰܟܬ aršitaktat ܐܰܪܫܝܬܰܟܬܰܬ architect

Most masculine loan words which end in a consonant (as listed below) can also take on the same plural as inherited nouns -e ـܶܐ: rastorant, ܪܰܣܬܳܪܰܢܬ Pl. rastorantat – rastorante ܪܰܣܬܳܪܰܢܬܰܬܪܰܣܬܳܪܰܢܬܶܐ talafon ܬܰܠܰܦܳܢ, Pl. talafonat - talafone ܬܰܠܰܦܳܢܰܬܬܰܠܰܦܳܢܶܐ Furthermore, masculine loan words of this category (ending in a consonant) that are borrowed from Arabic can also form the Arabic plural.

Hence, some nouns have three different plural forms:

Singular Plural  
maṭbax ܡܰܛܒܰܟ݂ maṭebëx/maṭbaxat/maṭbaxe ܡܰܛܶܒܷܟ݂ ܆ ܡܰܛܒܰܟ݂ܰܬ ܆ ܡܰܛܒܰܟ݂ܶܐ kitchen
ḥaywan ܚܰܝܘܰܢ ḥayewën/ḥaywanat/ḥaywane ܚܰܝܶܘܷܢ ܆ ܚܰܝܘܰܢܰܬ ܆ ܚܰܝܘܰܢܶܐ animal
daftar ܕܰܦܬܰܪ dafetër/daftarat/daftare ܕܰܦܶܬܷܪ ܆ ܕܰܦܬܰܪܰܬ ܆ ܕܰܦܬܰܪܶܐ notebook

2. Feminine loan words ending in -e ـܶܐ/-a ـܰܐ

Singular Plural  
ṣënca ܨܷܢܥܰܐ ṣëncat ܨܷܢܥܰܬ occupation, job
cmara ܥܡܰܪܰܐ cmarat ܥܡܰܪܰܬ building
čanṭa ܫ̰ܰܢܛܰܐ čanṭat ܫ̰ܰܢܛܰܬ bag
saca ܣܰܥܰܐ sacat ܣܰܥܰܬ clock, watch, hour
boya ܒܳܝܰܐ boyat ܒܳܝܰܬ colour
baladiye ܒܰܠܰܕܝـܝܶܐ baladiyat ܒܰܠܰܕܝـܝܰܬ municipality
šërke ܫܷܪܟܶܐ šërkat ܫܷܪܟܰܬ company
badle ܒܰܕܠܶܐ badlat ܒܰܕܠܰܬ suit

More recent loan words may deviate from this rule, e.g. the feminine noun tuwalet ܬܘܘܰܠܶܬ , Pl. tuwaletat ܬܘܘܰܠܶܬܰܬ „Toilet“. In general, glossaries and dictionaries include the irregular plural form which is to be memorized together with the singular form.