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Grammar 15

a) Verbal inflection in passive Stem II

1. Present inflection

The present base in the passive Stem II follows the pattern mizaban- ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢـ prior to consonant-initial inflectional suffixes and mizabn- ܡܝܙܰܒܢـ prior to vowel-initial inflectional suffixes. This differs from the present base of the active Stem II only by way of the syllabic prefix mi- ܡܝـ. Here the present inflection of mizaban ܡܺܝܙܰܒܰܢ „to be sold“ is exemplified:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mizaban

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܰܢ

mizabni

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܝ

3. P. (f.)

mizabno

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܐ

2. P.

mizabnat

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܰܬ

mizabnitu

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

mizabanno

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܰܢܢܳܐ

mizabnina

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mizabnono

ܡܺܝܙܰܒܢܳܢܳܐ

Examples of the passive Stem II in the present and future:

U gëšmo komifalaġ l arbco falqe rišoye.

The body is divided into four main parts.

ܐܘ ܓܘܫܡܐ ܟܳܡܝܦܰܠܰܓ݂ ܠܐܰܪܒܥܐ ܦܰܠܩܶܐ ܪܝܫܳܝܶܐ.

Bëṯër csar daqqat komikamal u zabno.

After ten minutes, the time is up.

ܒܷܬ݂ܷܪ ܥܣܰܪ ܕܰܩܩܰܬ ܟܳܡܝܕܟܰܡܰܠ ܐܘ ܙܰܒܢܐ.

Komizabni ab bote harke b ṭimo.

Here the houses are sold at a high price.

ܟܳܡܝܙܰܒܢܝ ܐܰܒ ܒܳܬܶܐ ܗܰܪܟܶܐ ܒܛܝܡܐ.

Bënyono ḥaṯo d cito komiqadaš.

A new church building is being consecrated.

ܒܷܢܝܳܢܐ ܚܰܬ݂ܐ ܕܥܝܬܐ ܟܳܡܝܩܰܕܰܫ.

Gёd miḥalqina mu Swed.

We will be thrown out of Sweden.

ܓܷܕ ܡܝܚܰܠܩܝܢܰܐ ܡܘ ܣܘܶܕ.

2. Preterite inflection

The base of the preterite in passive Stem II is pronounced mzaban- ܡܙܰܒܰܢـ before consonant-initial inflectional suffixes, and mzabn- ܡܙܰܒܢـ before vowel-initial inflectional suffixes. Here the preterite inflection of mzaban- ܡܙܰܒܰܢـ „to be sold“ is exemplified:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mzaban

ܡܙܰܒܰܢ

mzabni

ܡܙܰܒܢܝ

3. P. (f.)

mzabno

ܡܙܰܒܢܐ

2. P.

mzabnat

ܡܙܰܒܢܰܬ

mzabnitu

ܡܙܰܒܢܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

mzabanno

ܡܙܰܒܰܢܢܐ

mzabnina

ܡܙܰܒܢܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mzabnono

ܡܙܰܒܢܳܢܳܐ

Examples of the preterite in the passive Stem II:

U Abrohëm mcayan w bëṯër mḥawal lab beṯ krihe.

Abrohёm was examined and then relocated to the hospital.

ܐܘ ܐܰܒܪܳܗܷܡ ܡܥܰܝܰܢ ܘܒܷܬ݂ܷܪ ܡܚܰܘܰܠ ܠܰܒ ܒܶܬ݂ ܟܪܝܗܶܐ.

Kulxu mzabnitu.

You were all sold.

ܟܘܠܟ݂ܘ ܡܙܰܒܢܝܬܘ.

Mḥalqono mu disko.

I (f) was expelled from the disco.

ܡܚܰܠܩܳܢܐ ܡܘ ܕܝܤܟܐ.

 

b) Verbal inflection in passive stem III

The passive verb in the third stem is identified by an infixed -t- ـܬـ. As in the passive Stem II verbs, these verbs are also formed with a syllabic prefix, which is pronounced mita- ܡܝܬܰـ in the present and mta- ܡܬܰـ in the preterite: examples: ltm ܠܬܡ IIIp mitaltam – mtaltam ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡ - ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡ „to be collected“; dcr ܕܥܪ IIIp mitadcar – mtadcar ܡܝܬܰܕܥܰܪ – ܡܬܰܕܥܰܪ „to be brought back, to be sent back“; cmr ܥܡܪ IIIp mitacmar – mtacmar ܡܝܬܰܥܡܰܪ - ܡܬܰܥܡܰܪ „to be built“; fhm ܦܗܡ IIIp mitafham - mtafham ܡܝܬܰܦܗܰܡ - ܡܬܰܦܗܰܡ „to be explained, to be made understandable“.          

1. Present inflection

As in the other stems, the present base has two forms. With consonant-initial inflectional suffixes, the base is mitaltam- ܡܝܬܰܠܬܰܡـ and with vowel-initial inflectional suffixes, it is mitaltm- ܡܝܬܰܠܬܡـ.

Here the present inflection of the example ltm ܠܬܡ IIIp mitaltam ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܰܡ „to be collected“ is illustrated:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mitaltam

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܰܡ

mitaltmi

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܺܝ

3. P. (f.)

mitaltmo

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܳܐ

2. P.

mitaltmat

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܰܬ

mitaltmitu

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

mitaltamno

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܰܡܢܳܐ

mitaltmina

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mitaltmono

ܡܺܝܬܰܠܬܡܳܢܳܐ

Note:

Before vowel-initial inflectional suffixes (3.f.sg., 2.sg., 1.f.sg., 1./2./3. pl.) the consonant cluster at the end of the base -ltm- ـܠܬܡـ can be broken up to form -latm- ـܠܰܬܡـ or alternatively -lёtm- ـܠܷܬܡـ.

Example of the passive Stem III verbs in the present:

Ak kṯowe kolozam mitasalmi lu mёlfono.

The books must be delivered to the teacher.

ܐܰܟ ܟܬ݂ܳܘܶܐ ܟܳܠܳܙܰܡ ܡܝܬܰܣܰܠܡܝ ܠܘ ܡܷܠܦܳܢܐ.

U bayto gёd mitacmar xayifo inaqla d howe šaġole.

The house will be built quickly when there are workers.

ܐܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ ܓܷܕ ܡܝܬܰܥܡܰܪ ܟ݂ܰܝܝܦܐ ܐܝܢܰܩܠܰܐ ܕܗܳܘܶܐ ܫܰܓ݂ܳܠܶܐ.

Az zuze lo komitaltmi mi šuqo.

The money will not be gathered from the street.

ܐܰܙ ܙܘܙܶܐ ܠܐ ܟܳܡܝܬܰܠܬܡܝ ܡܝ ܫܘܩܐ.

 2. Preterite inflection

In the preterite the bases mtaltam- ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡـ and mtaltm- ܡܬܰܠܬܡـ exist:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mtaltam

ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡ

mtaltmi

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܺܝ

3. P. (f.)

mtaltmo

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܳܐ

2. P.

mtaltmat

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܰܬ݁

mtaltmitu

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܺܝܬ݁ܽܘ

1. P. (m.)

mtaltamno

ܡܬܰܠܬܰܡܢܳܐ

mtaltmina

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܺܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mtaltmono

ܡܬܰܠܬܡܳܢܳܐ

Note:

The same rule goes here: When preceding vowel-initial inflectional suffixes (3.f.sg., 2.sg., 1.f.sg., 1./2./3. pl.), the consonant clusters at the end of the base -ltm- ـܠܬܡـ can be split to form -latm- ـܠܰܬܡـ or alternatively -lёtm- ـܠܷܬܡـ.

Examples in the preterite of the passive Stem III verbs:

Ar raḏoyoṯe gniwe mtasalmi lam more.  

The stolen cars were turned over to their owners.

ܐܰܪ ܪܰܕ݂ܳܝܳܬ݂ܶܐ ܓܢܝܘܶܐ ܡܬܰܣܰܠܡܝ ܠܰܡ ܡܳܪܶܐ.

An esore d bayn an aṯrawoṯayḏan mtaqaṭci.

The relationships between our countries were severed. 

ܐܢ ܐܶܣܳܪܶܐ ܕܒܰܝܢ ܐܰܢ ܐܬ݂ܪܰܘܳܬ݂ܰܝܕ݂ܰܢ ܡܬܰܩܰܛܥܝ.

Qay mtasṭar hul ucdo cal u camlo bišo?

Why was the evil deed concealed until now?

ܩܰܝ ܡܬܰܣܛܰܪ ܗܘܠ ܐܘܥܕܐ ܥܰܠ  ܐܘ ܥܰܡܠܐ ܒܝܫܐ؟

Lo mtawlfitu mede doronoyo cal u kёnšo.

You were not taught anything modern about the society.

ܠܐ ܡܬܰܘܠܦܝܬܘ ܡܶܕܶܐ ܕܳܪܳܢܳܝܐ ܥܰܠ ܐܘ ܟܷܢܫܐ.

 

c) The infinitive

1. The form of the infinitive

Regular forms of the infinitive are each pronounced according to their stem as follows:

1) Stem I

grošo (grš I)

to pull, drag

ܓܪܳܫܐ (ܓܪܫ)

syomo (sym I)

to make

ܣܝܳܡܐ (ܣܝܡ)

bxoyo (bxy I)

to cry

ܒܟ݂ܳܝܐ (ܒܟ݂ܝ)

lqoyo (lqy I)

to meet

ܠܩܳܝܐ (ܠܩܝ)

zwono (zwn I < zbn)

to buy

ܙܘܳܢܐ (ܙܘܢ < ܙܒܢ)

 

Several infinitives of the first stem are built irregularly. The most common are:

mazlo (ʾzy I< ʾzl)

to go away

ܡܰܙܠܐ (ܐܙܝ > ܐܙܠ I)

mamro  (ʾmr I)

to say

ܡܰܡܪܐ (ܐܡܪ I)

mahwo (ʾby I)

to give

ܡܰܗܘܐ (ܐܒܝ I)

maṯyo (ʾṯy I)

to come

ܡܰܬ݂ܝܐ (ܐܬ݂ܝ I)

maḏco (ʾḏc I< yḏc)

to know

ܡܰܕ݂ܥܐ (ܐܕ݂ܥ < ܝܕ݂ܥ I)

 

Exception:

muklo (ʾkl I)

to eat

ܡܘܟܠܐ (ܐܟܠ)

 2) Stem II

cedolo (cdl II)

to make right

ܥܶܕܳܠܐ (ܥܕܠ II)

qetolo (qtl II)

to fight

ܩܶܬܳܠܐ (ܩܬܠ II)

jerobo (jrb II)

to try

ܔܶܪܳܒܐ (ܔܪܒ II)

zebono (zbn II)

to sell

ܙܶܒܳܢܐ (ܙܒܢ II)

šedoro (šdr II)

to send away

ܫܶܕܳܪܐ (ܫܕܪ II)

3) Stem III

tёrmišo (rmš III)

to move

ܬܷܪܡܝܫܐ (ܪܡܫ III)

tёrhiṭo (rhṭ III)

to drive quickly, drive

ܬܷܪܗܝܛܐ (ܪܗܛ III)

tёltimo (ltm III)

to collect

ܬܷܠܬܝܡܐ (ܠܬܡ III)

tёqriyo (qry III)

to teach

ܬܷܩܪܝܝܐ (ܩܪܝ III)

tёrkiwo (rkw III)

to raise, set up

ܬܷܪܟܝܘܐ (ܪܟܘ III)

Minor deviation in forms with weak consonants in the first and second radical, respectively: 

telifo (ylf III)

to teach

ܬܶܠܝܦܐ (ܝܠܦ III)

tekiwo (kyw III)

to raise, set up  

ܬܶܟܝܘܐ (ܟܝܘ III)

 2. Use of the infinitive

The infinitive in Surayt is almost entirely used as a substantive (noun). In this lesson the following forms appear:

ṭcoyo (ṭcy I) daġ ġame

the forgetting of the worries

ܛܥܳܝܐ (ܛܥܝ I) ܕܰܓ݂ ܓ݂ܰܡܶܐ

tërhiṭo (rhṭ III) d sësye

horse racing

ܬܷܪܗܝܛܐ (ܪܗܛ III) ܕܣܷܣܝܶܐ

tërmišo (rmš III) du gušmo

body movement

ܬܷܪܡܝܫܐ (ܪܡܫ III) ܕܘ ܓܘܫܡܐ

u qmoro (qmr I) du muroyo

the winning of the game

ܐܘ ܩܡܳܪܐ (ܩܡܪ I) ܕܘ ܡܘܪܳܝܐ

šyoro (šyr I)

skating, skiing, sledging

ܫܝܳܪܐ (ܫܝܪ I)

sloqo (slq I) d ṭuro

mountain climbing

ܣܠܳܩܐ (ܣܠܩ I) ܕܛܘܪܐ

qloco (qlc I) d bësëklet

bicycle riding

ܩܠܳܥܐ (ܩܠܥ I) ܕܒܷܣܷܟܠܶܬ

ḥyoṣo (ḥyṣ I) d gušmo

fitness

ܚܝܳܨܐ (ܚܝܨ I) ܕܓܘܫܡܐ