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Grammar 11

a) The adjective

In the singular, adjectives have a masculine and a feminine form respectively, whilst in the plural they have one common form.

The regular forms end in -o ܐܳ (m.), -to/-ṯo ܬ݂ܐ܇ܬܐ (f.) and -e ܐܶ (Pl.):

m.Sg. f.Sg. Pl.  
rabo ܪܰܒܐ rabṯo ܪܰܒܬ݂ܐ rabe ܪܰܒܶܐ big
šafiro ܫܰܦܝܪܐ šafërto ܫܰܦܷܪܬܐ šafire ܫܰܦܝܪܶܐ beautiful
komo ܟܳܡܐ këmto ܟܷܡܬܐ kome ܟܳܡܶܐ black
baṭilo ܒܰܛܝܠܐ baṭëlto ܒܰܛܷܠܬܐ baṭile ܒܰܛܝܠܶܐ tired, exhausted
basimo ܒܰܣܝܡܐ basëmto ܒܰܣܷܡܬܐ basime ܒܰܣܝܡܶܐ good (taste), delicious
raḥuqo ܪܰܚܘܩܐ raḥëqto ܪܰܚܷܩܬܐ raḥuqe ܪܰܚܘܩܶܐ far
qariwo ܩܰܪܝܘܐ qaruto ܩܰܪܘܬܐ qariwe ܩܰܪܝܘܶܐ close

As a qualifier the adjective follows the noun it describes. Noun and adjective agree in number and gender:

m. aḥuno rabo a big brother ܐܰܚܘܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ
qubco šacuṯo a yellow beanie/hat ܩܘܒܥܐ ܫܰܥܘܬ݂ܐ
f. qemësto këmto a black shirt ܩܶܡܷܣܬܐ ܟܷܡܬܐ
dašëšto qayërto cold rice pudding ܕܰܫܷܫܬܐ ܩܰܝܷܪܬܐ
Pl. tene basime delicious figs ܬܶܢܶܐ ܒܰܣܝܡܶܐ
gërwe semoqe red socks ܓܷܪܘܶܐ ܣܶܡܳܩܶܐ
If the noun stands with the definite article, the adjective, too, is definite without taking on the definite article:
m. u aḥuno rabo the big brother ܐܘ ܐܰܚܘܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ
f. i qemësto këmto the black shirt ܐܝ ܩܶܡܷܣܬܐ ܟܷܡܬܐ
Pl. ag gërwe semoqe the red socks ܐܰܓ ܓܷܪܘܶܐ ܣܶܡܳܩܶܐ
As predicates adjectives in this word order take on the copula as follows:
m. u aḥuno rabo yo the brother is big ܐܘ ܐܰܚܘܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܝܐ
f. i qemësto këmto yo the shirt is black ܐܝ ܩܶܡܷܣܬܐ ܟܷܡܬܐ ܝܐ
Pl. ag gërwe semoqe ne the socks are red ܐܰܓ ܓܷܪܘܶܐ ܣܶܡܳܩܶܐ ܢܶܐ
If the noun in subject position is not definite, those sentences mean:
m. aḥuno rabo yo he is a big brother ܐܰܚܘܢܐ ܪܰܒܐ ܝܐ
f. qemësto këmto yo it is a black shirt ܩܶܡܷܣܬܐ ܟܷܡܬܐ ܝܐ
Pl. gërwe semoqe ne they are red socks ܓܷܪܘܶܐ ܣܶܡܳܩܶܐ ܢܶܐ

b) Prepositions

1. Prepositions in general

The most common prepositions are b ܒـ “in”, bëṯr ܒܷܬ݂ܪ ”behind”, cal ܥܰܠ “on”, cam ܥܰܡ “with”, gab ܓܰܒ “at, next, to”, ܠـ “for, to, into”, laf ܠܰܦ “toward(s)”, ܡـ, me ܡܶܐ “from, of, out of”, qëm ܩܷܡ “in front of”, ܣـ, se ܣܶܐ “at, next to”, taḥt ܬܰܚܬ „under“.

Short prepositions are written in one word with the article:

b-/ܒـ bu bayto ܒܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ „in the house“, bi qriṯo ܒܝ ܩܪܝܬ݂ܐ „in the village“, bak karme ܒܰܟ ܟܰܪܡܶܐ „in the vineyards“
l-/ܠـ lu bayto ܠܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ „into the house“,li qriṯo ܠܝ ܩܪܝܬ݂ܐ „into the village“, lak karme ܠܰܟ ܟܰܪܡܶܐ „into the vineyards“
m-/ܡـ mu bayto ܡܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ „from/out of the house“, mi qriṯo ܡܝ ܩܪܝܬ݂ܐ „from/out of the village“, mak karme ܡܰܟ ܟܰܪܡܶܐ „from/out of the vineyards“
s-/ܣـ su bayto ܣܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ „at the house“, si qriṯo ܣܝ ܩܪܝܬ݂ܐ „next to the village“, sak karme ܣܰܟ ܟܰܪܡܶܐ „next to the vineyards“

2. Prepositions with suffixes

Prepositions can take on personal pronominal suffixes. In doing so, the prepositions may alter.

The personal pronominal suffixes that are appended to the prepositions correspond to the possessive suffixes of the restricted series introduced in Grammar 5a.2.

Preceding the suffixes, the prepositions appear as follows:

Preposition Preposition with suffix
b ܒـ eb-/ab- ܐܶܒـ ܆ ܐܰܒـ
l ܠـ el-/al- ܐܶܠـ ܆ ܐܰܠـ
m ܡـ mën-/men- ܡܷܢـ ܆ ܡܶܢـ
cal ܥܰܠ acl- ܐܰܥܠـ
cam ܥܰܡ acm- ܐܰܥܡـ
s ܣـ sid-/sëd- ܣܝܕ ܆ ܣܷܕ
bëṯr ܒܷܬ݂ܪ „behind“ and ṭaḥt ܬܰܚܬ „under“ are either used in combination with personal pronominal suffixes or they precede a noun with a definite article:
bëṯre ܒܷܬ݂ܪܶܗ behind him
bëṯr u bayto ܒܷܬ݂ܪ ܐܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ behind the house
taḥta ܬܰܚܬܰܗ under her
taḥt i ṭëbliṯo ܬܰܚܬ ܐܝ ܛܷܒܠܝܬ݂ܐ under the table
Prepositions with personal pronominal suffixes:
  l- ܠـ b- ܒـ m- ܡـ
Singular
3rd m. ele ܐܶܠܶܗ ebe ܐܶܒܶܗ mene ܡܶܢܶܗ
3rd f. ela ܐܶܠܰܗ eba ܐܶܒܰܗ mena ܡܶܢܰܗ
2nd m. elux ܐܶܠܘܟ݂ ebux ܐܶܒܘܟ݂ menux ܡܶܢܘܟ݂
2nd f. elax ܐܶܠܰܟ݂ ebax ܐܶܒܰܟ݂ menax ܡܶܢܰܟ݂
1st eli ܐܶܠܝ ebi ܐܶܒܝ meni ܡܶܢܝ
Plural
3rd elayye, alle ܐܶܠܰܝـܝܶܗ܆ ܐܰܠܠܶܗ ebayye, appe ܐܶܒܰܝـܝܶܗ܆ ܐܰܦ̇ܦܶ̇ܗ menayye, mënne ܡܶܢܰܝـܝܶܗ܆ ܡܷܢܢܶܗ
2nd elayxu, alxu ܐܶܠܰܝܟ݂ܘ܆ ܐܰܠܟ݂ܘ ebayxu, abxu ܐܶܒܰܝܟ݂ܘ܆ ܐܰܒܟ݂ܘ menayxu, mënxu ܡܶܢܰܝܟ݂ܘ܆ ܡܷܢܟ݂ܘ
1st elayna, elan ܐܶܠܰܝܢܰܐ܆ ܐܶܠܰܢ ebayna, eban ܐܶܒܰܝܢܰܐ܆ ܐܶܒܰܢ menayna, menan ܡܶܢܰܝܢܰܐ܆ ܡܶܢܰܢ

 

  cal ܥܰܠ cam ܥܰܡ s- ܣـ
Singular
3rd m. acle ܐܰܥܠܶܗ acme ܐܰܥܡܶܗ side ܣܝܕܶܗ
3rd f. acla ܐܰܥܠܰܗ acma ܐܰܥܡܰܗ sida ܣܝܕܰܗ
2nd m. aclux ܐܰܥܠܘܟ݂ acmux ܐܰܥܡܘܟ݂ sidux ܣܝܕܘܟ݂
2nd f. aclax ܐܰܥܠܰܟ݂ acmax ܐܰܥܡܰܟ݂ sidax ܣܝܕܰܟ݂
1st acli ܐܰܥܠܝ acmi ܐܰܥܡܝ sidi ܣܝܕܝ
Plural
3rd aclayye ܐܰܥܠܰܝـܝܶܗ acmayye ܐܰܥܡܰܝـܝܶܗ sidayye, sëtte ܣܝܕܰܝـܝܶܗ܆ ܣܷܬܬܶܗ
2nd aclayxu ܐܰܥܠܰܝܟ݂ܘ acmayxu ܐܰܥܡܰܝܟ݂ܘ sidayxu, sëtxu ܣܝܕܰܝܟ݂ܘ܆ ܣܷܬܟ݂ܘ
1st aclayna, aclan ܐܰܥܠܰܝܢܰܐ܆ܐܰܥܠܰܢ acmayna, acman ܐܰܥܡܰܝܢܰܐ܆ܐܰܥܡܰܢ sidayna, sidan ܣܝܕܰܝܢܰܐ܆ܣܝܕܰܢ

In the plural, prepositions can take on both the short and the long form interchangeably.