The editing screen requires at least 450 pixels of horizontal space. Please rotate your device or use one with a bigger screen.

Grammar 14

The Verbal Inflection in Stem III

a) The Verbal Inflection in Stem III

1. Present inflection

As in the other stems the present base has two forms in Stem III: maltam- ܡܰܠܬܰܡـ before consonant-initial inflectional suffixes and maltm- ܡܰܠܬܡـ before vowel-initial inflectional suffixes:  

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

maltam

ܡܰܠܬܰܡ

maltmi

ܡܰܠܬܡܺܝ

3. P. (f.)

maltmo

ܡܰܠܬܡܳܐ

2. P.

maltmat

ܡܰܠܬܡܰܬ

maltmitu

ܡܰܠܬܡܺܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

maltamno

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܢܳܐ

maltmina

ܡܰܠܬܡܺܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

maltmono

ܡܰܠܬܡܳܢܳܐ

Note:

When the base precedes vowel-initial suffixes, maltm- ܡܰܠܬܡـ the consonantal cluster -ltm- ـܠܰܬܡـ is split with the aid of an epenthetic vowel, /a/ or /ё/ to -latm- ـܠܰܬܡـ respectively -lёtm- ـܠܷܬܡـ: komadamxi an nacime  ܟܳܡܰܕܰܡܟ݂ܝ ܐܰܢ ܢܰܥܝܡܶܐ „they put the children to sleep“, gёd macёzmina am morayḏan  ܓܷܕ ܡܰܥܷܙܡܝܢܰܐ ܐܰܡ ܡܳܪܰܝܕ݂ܰܢ „we will invite our relatives“.

Examples for present and future in Stem III:

Bëṯër gëd madcarno xabro aclux.

Then I will give you an answer.

ܒܷܬ݂ܷܪ ܓܶܕ ܡܰܕܥܰܪܢܐ ܟ݂ܰܒܪܐ ܐܰܥܠܘܟ݂.

I barṯayḏax komafaṣḥolan baq qolayḏa d ceḏo zcuro.

Your (f.) daughter delights us with her Christmas songs.

ܐܝ ܒܰܪܬ݂ܰܝܕ݂ܰܟ݂ ܟܳܡܰܦܰܨܚܳܠܰܢ ܒܰܩ ܩܳܠܰܝܕ݂ܰܗ ܕܥܶܕ݂ܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ.

Aydarbo komašafcitu u lalyo?

How do you pass the night?

ܐܰܝܕܰܪܒܐ ܟܳܡܰܫܰܦܥܝܬܘ ܐܘ ܠܰܠܝܐ؟

2) Preterite inflection

As in Stem II the preterite in Stem III also has only one base, maltam- ܡܰܠܬܰܡـ and the form corresponds to the present. A distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs does not exist. With the inflectional suffixes using the example maltam ܡܰܠܬܰܡ the preterite has the following forms:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

maltamle

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܶܗ

maltamme

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܡܶܗ

3. P. (f.)

maltamla

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܰܗ

2. P. (m.)

maltamlux

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܘܟܼ

maltamxu

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܟ݂ܘ

2. P. (f.)

maltamlax

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܰܟܼ

1. P.

maltamli

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܝ

maltamlan

ܡܰܠܬܰܡܠܰܢ

Examples for the preterite in Stem III:

Mawḏacce ruḥayye bë ḥḏoḏe.

They introduced themselves to each other.

ܡܰܘܕ݂ܰܥܥܶܗ ܪܘܚܰܝܝܶܗ ܒܷܚܕ݂ܳܕ݂ܶܐ.

Hёnne macmaḏḏe i barṯaṯṯe bi cito.

They had their daughter baptized in the church.

ܗܷܢܢܶܐ ܡܰܥܡܰܕ݂ܕ݂ܶܗ ܐܝ ܒܰܪܬ݂ܰܬ݂ܬ݂ܶܗ ܒܝ ܥܝܬܐ.

Markawwe i dawmo du ceḏo.

They put up a Christmas tree.

ܡܰܪܟܰܘܘܶܗ ܐܝ ܕܰܘܡܐ ܕܘ ܥܶܕ݂ܐ.

 

b) The passive verb stems and the passive verb

1. Alongside the active, there are also three passive verb stems in Surayt. As each of the passive verb stems can correspond to an active verb stem, they are designated with Ip, IIp, and IIIp. These stems can be interpreted as the continuation of the t-stems of old Aramaic, namely Eṯpʿel ܐܶܬ݂ܦܥܶܠ (= Ip), Eṯpaʿʿal ܐܶܬ݂ܦ݁ܰܥܰܠ (=IIp) and Ettafʿal ܐܶܬ݁ܬ݁ܰܦ݂ܥܰܠ (IIIp).

The principle of conjugation in the passive verb stems corresponds to that in the active verb stems. The passive stems have their own inflectional bases. During inflection, the passive verbs take the same suffix series as the present in both the present and the preterite (see G.7a). In this regard, they are similar to the intransitive verbs.

The following table provides an overview of the present and preterite bases in passive verb stems in comparison to the active forms:

  Present Base Preterite Base  
I goraš-, gurš-/gёrš- grёš- to pull, drag
ܓܳܪܰܫـ , ܓܘܪܫـ/ܓܷܪܫـ ܓܪܷܫـ
Ip mёgraš-, mёgroš- grёš-, griš- to be pulled
ܡܷܓܪܰܫـ , ܡܷܓܪܳܫـ ܓܪܷܫـ , ܓܪܝܫـ
II mzaban-, mzabn- mzaban- to sell
ܡܙܰܒܰܢـ , ܡܙܰܒܢـ ܡܙܰܒܰܢـ
IIp mizaban-, mizabn- mzaban-, mzabn- to be sold
ܡܝܙܰܒܰܢـ, ܡܝܙܰܒܢـ ܡܙܰܒܰܢـ, ܡܙܰܒܢـ
III macmar-, macmr- macmar- to build
ܡܰܥܡܰܪـ, ܡܰܥܡܪـ ܡܰܥܡܰܪـ
IIIp mitacmar-, mitacmr- mtacmar-, mtacmr- to be built
ܡܝܬܰܥܡܰܪـ, ܡܝܬܰܥܡܪـ ܡܬܰܥܡܰܪـ, ܡܬܰܥܡܪـ

The first form precedes consonant-initial inflectional suffixes, and the second precedes vowel-initial inflectional suffixes. In IIIp (as also in III) if the base precedes a vowel-initial suffix, it can have a free variant with a break in the consonant cluster, present: mitacamr- ܡܝܬܰܥܰܡܪـ and preterite: mtacamr- ܡܬܰܥܰܡܪـ.

2. For each active verb, a passive verb can be formed. The active verb expresses active voice, for example u zlam koqolaf u ḥabušo ܐܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ ܟܳܩܳܠܰܦ ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ „the man peels the apple“. The passive verb describes the action from another perspective. The actual subject (here: u zlam ܙܠܰܐܡܐܘ  the man”) is not expressed in the passive. It is replaced by a new subject (u ḥabušo ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ „der Apfel“). In this way, it is expressed that the apple became peeled. Whoever peeled the apple plays no role. When necessary, this can be supplemented with help from mu ṭaraf d- ܡܘ ܛܰܪܰܦ ܕ „by way of“ or the abbreviated me- ܡܶܐ „through, by, via“: u ḥabušo komёqlaf mu ṭaraf du zlam ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ ܟܳܡܷܩܠܰܦ ܡܘ ܛܰܪܰܦ ܕܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ or u ḥabušo komёqlaf mu zlam ܐܘ ܚܰܒܘܫܐ ܟܳܡܷܩܠܰܦ ܡܘ ܙܠܰܐܡ „the apple is peeled by the man“.

3. Several intransitive and reflexive verbs are formed in the same manner as passive verbs. High frequency verbs such as mёjġal – jġil ܡܷܔܓ݂ܰܠ - ܔܓ݂ܝܠ „to speak“, mibaṭ - biṭ ܡܝܒܰܛ - ܒܝܛ „to explode“, mёfṣaḥ - fṣiḥ ܡܷܦܨܰܚ - ܦܨܝܚ „to be happy“, mёfraš – friš ܡܷܦܪܰܫ - ܦܪܝܫ „to separate, break off“ also belong in this category.

 

c) Verb inflexion in passive stem I

1. Present inflection

The regular verbs of the passive Stem I are inflected in the present according to the example of mёfham – fhim ܡܷܦܗܰܡ - ܦܗܝܡ (fhm ܦܗܡ Ip) „to be understood“ as follows:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mëfham

ܡܷܦܗܰܡ

mëfhomi

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܺܝ

3. P. (f.)

mëfhomo

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܳܐ

2. P.

mëfhomat

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܰܬ

mëfhomitu

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܺܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

mëfhamno

ܡܷܦܗܰܡܢܳܐ

mëfhomina

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܺܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mëfhomono

ܡܷܦܗܳܡܳܢܳܐ

 

Examples of passive Stem I in the present:

Gёd mёzwono i raḏaytayḏux adyawma.

Today your (m.) car will be sold.

ܓܷܕ ܡܷܙܘܳܢܐ ܐܝ ܪܰܕ݂ܰܝܬܰܝܕ݂ܘܟ݂ ܐܰܕܝܰܘܡܰܐ.

Lo komёfhomitu.

Nobody understands you (pl.); you (pl.) are not understood.

ܠܐ ܟܳܡܷܦܗܳܡܝܬܘ.

Komëqroyo i egarṯo w komëzmori aq qole.

The letter is read and the songs are sung.

ܟܳܡܷܩܪܳܝܐ ܐܝ ܐܶܓܰܪܬ݂ܐ ܘܟܳܡܷܙܡܳܪܝ ܐܰܩ ܩܳܠܶܐ.


Intransitive verbs:

Kibi mёjġolono acme? Can I (f.) speak with him? ܟܝܒܝ ܡܷܔܓ݂ܳܠܳܢܐ ܐܰܥܡܶܗ؟
Lo mёḥzonat! Don’t be sad! ܠܐ ܡܷܚܙܳܢܰܬ!
Kolozam mёṯnoḥat bu bayto. You must rest at home. ܟܳܠܳܙܰܡ ܡܷܬ݂ܢܳܚܰܬ ܒܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ.

2. Preterite inflection

The base of the preterite in passive Stem I verbs is identical to that of the active Stem I verbs. Indeed the passive verbs in the preterite take the same inflectional suffixes as those of the present. Here is the paradigm of the example fhim ܦܗܝܡ „to be understood“:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

fhim

ܦܗܝܡ

fhimi

ܦܗܝܡܝ

3. P. (f.)

fhimo

ܦܗܝܡܐ

2. P.

fhimat

ܦܗܝܡܰܬ

fhimitu

ܦܗܝܡܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

fhëmno

ܦܗܷܡܢܐ

fhimina

ܦܗܝܡܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

fhimono

ܦܗܝܡܳܢܐ

Note:

The /i/ in the third person m.sg. (fhim ܦܗܝܡ , griš ܓܪܝܫ , jġil ܔܓ݂ܝܠ etc.) is, contrary to the rule for closed syllables, always long.

Examples of the preterite passive Stem I:

Mir ele, mёṯnaḥ!

He was told, rest!

ܡܝܪ ܐܶܠܶܗ، ܡܷܬ݂ܢܰܚ!

Hiya nafilo w twiro druca.

She fell down and her arm broke.

ܗܝܝܰܐ ܢܰܦܝܠܐ ܘܬܘܝܪܐ ܕܪܘܥܰܗ.

Aṯmёl hiw u darmono.

Yesterday the medicine was administered.

ܐܰܬ݂ܡܷܠ ܗܝܘ ܐܘ ܕܰܪܡܳܢܐ.

Tamo zbiṭina w law qadirina ducrina lu bayto.

There we were captured and could no longer return home.

ܬܰܡܐ ܙܒܝܛܝܢܰܐ ܘܠܰܘ ܩܰܕܝܪܝܢܰܐ ܕܘܥܪܝܢܰܐ ܠܘ ܒܰܝܬܐ.

Sxiri aš šaboke.

The window was shut.

ܣܟ݂ܝܪܝ ܐܰܫ ܫܰܒܳܟܶܐ.

Ftiḥ u tarco.

The door was opened.

ܦܬܝܚ ܐܘ ܬܰܪܥܐ.