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Grammar 16

a) Verbs with four or more radicals

1. Regular verbs

Verbs with four root consonants are formed according to the scheme of Stem II. Frequently occurring neologisms belong to this class, such as mtalfan - mtalfanle ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ - ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ „to telephone“, mparkar – mparkarle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪܠܶܗ „to park“, mrašmal – mrašmele ܡܪܰܫܡܰܠ - ܡܪܰܫܡܶܠܶܗ „to finance“, mšawša - mšawšale ܡܫܰܘܫܰܛ - ܡܫܰܘܫܰܛܠܶܗ „to develop (tr.)“ in addition to older loan words such as msayar - msayarle ܡܣܰܝܛܰܪ - ܡܣܰܝܛܰܪܠܶܗ „to control“, mqayzan - mqayzanle  ܡܩܰܝܙܰܢ - ܡܩܰܝܙܰܢܠܶܗ „to win“, mpartak – mpartakle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܬܰܟ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܬܰܟܠܶܗ „to pluck (feathers, hair)“.

Using the example of mtalfan – mtalfanle  ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ – ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ here the inflectional paradigms of the present and preterite are illustrated:

1) Present

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mtalfan

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ

mtalfni

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܝ

3. P. (f.)

mtalfno

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܐ

2. P.

mtalfnat

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܰܬ

mtalfnitu

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܝܬܘ

1. P. (m.)

mtalfanno

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܢܐ

mtalfnina

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܝܢܰܐ

1. P. (f.)

mtalfnono

ܡܬܰܠܦܢܳܢܐ

 2) Preterite

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

mtalfanle

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ

mtalfanne

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܢܶܗ

3. P. (f.)

mtalfanla

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܰܗ

2. P. (m.)

mtalfanlux

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܘܟ݂

mtalfanxu

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܟ݂ܘ

2. P. (f.)

mtalfanlax

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܰܟ݂

1. P.

mtalfanli

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܝ

mtalfanlan

ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܰܢ

 

b) Irregular verbs

Historically, irregular verbs have at least one weak consonant in the root. We consider primarily the consonants /ʾ/ (olaf ܐ), /w/ (waw ܘ), /y/ (yuܝ), as weak, which are to an extent no longer recognizable in Surayt. According to the position of the weak consonant in the root, three types of weak verbs can be distinguished: 1. verbs with a weak initial root consonant (radical), 2. verbs with a weak second radical, and 3. verbs with a weak third radical. There are also verbs which include two weak radicals in the root. Many of the most frequently occurring verbs in Surayt belong to this category.

Verbs with /l/ ܠ‍ as a final consonant undergo minor changes upon taking the l-suffixes in the preterite, and therefore they are included in the irregular verb category.

The inflection of the irregular verbs is only dealt with at level B of this course. An overview can already be found here in the section "verb conjugation" in the appendix.

 

c) Modern constructions and borrowings of the verbs

The necessity of procuring a place in Surayt for everyday language use, presses its speakers to the construction of neologisms. Indeed the formation of new verbs is not practiced everywhere in the same manner and can manifest in a variety of forms.

1. As a rule new verbs are formed according to the scheme of Stem II, as demonstrated in the aforementioned verbs mtalfan – mtalfanle ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢܠܶܗ – ܡܬܰܠܦܰܢ „to telephone“ and mparkar – mparkarle ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪ - ܡܦ݁ܰܪܟܰܪܠܶܗ „to park“. Further such verbs include

       mšamas – mšamasle ܡܫܰܡܰܣ - ܡܫܰܡܰܣܠܶܗ „to sunbathe“

       mfakas – mfakasle ܡܦܰܟܰܤ - ܡܦܰܟܰܣܠܶܗ „to fax“

       mvayaz – mvayazle ܡܒ݂ܰܝܰܙ - ܡܒ݂ܰܝܰܙܠܶܗ „to apply for a visa“

       mdawaš – mdawašle ܡܕܰܘܰܫ - ܡܕܰܘܰܫܠܶܗ „to shower“

       msafar – msafarle ܡܣܰܦܰܪ - ܡܣܰܦܰܪܠܶܗ „to travel“

2. A second much more common method of verb formation presents itself as the composite of the helping verb soyam – sёmle ܣܳܝܰܡ - ܣܷܡܠܶܗ „to make, to do“ together with the foreign noun or the infinitive:

kosoyam talafon he telephones ܟܳܣܳܝܰܡ ܬܰܠܰܦܳܢ
sёmle i raḏayto park he parked the car ܣܷܡܠܶܗ ܐܺܝ ܪܰܕ݂ܰܝܬܐ ܦ݁ܰܪܟ
gёd saymono i egaro faks I will fax the letter ܓܷܕ ܣܰܝܡܳܢܐ ܐܝ ܐܶܓܰܪܬ݂ܐ ܦܰܟܤ
sumu duš meqёm d nёfqitu Shower before you (pl.) go out! ܣܘܡܘ ܕܘܫ ܡܶܩܷܡ ܕܢܷܦܩܝܬܘ

 

d) The Imperative

1. The imperative of regular verbs

The imperative has one respective form for singular and plural. Whereas the singular form is used with no suffix, the plural form is distinguished by way of a –uـܘ at the end. Regular verbs have the following imperative forms:

  Stem I Stem II Stem III
Sg. graš! pull! ܓܪܰܫ mzaban! sell! ܡܙܰܒܰܢ breakfast! frühstücke! ܡܰܩܪܰܛ
Pl. grašu! pull! ܓܪܰܫܘ mzabenu! sell! ܡܙܰܒܶܢܘ breakfast! frühstückt! ܡܰܩܪܶܛܘ

2. Negation of the imperative

The imperative is negated with the help of lo + base form of the present in the second person (sg. and pl. respectively):

Imperative   Imperative negated
ṭcay! ܛܥܰܝ forget! but: lo ṭocat! ܠܐ ܛܳܥܰܬ don’t forget!
ṭcayu! ܛܥܰܝܘ forget! lo ṭocitu ܠܐ ܛܳܥܝܬܘ don’t forget!

 

dmax! ܕܡܰܟ݂ sleep! but: lo dёmxat! ܠܐ ܕܷܡܟ݂ܰܬ don’t sleep!
dmaxu! ܕܡܰܟ݂ܘ sleep! lo dёmxitu! ܠܐ ܕܷܡܟ݂ܝܬܘ don’t sleep!

 

mёḥzan! ܡܷܚܙܰܢ be sad! aber: lo mëḥzonat! ܠܐ ܡܷܚܙܳܢܰܬ don’t be sad!
mёḥzenu! ܡܷܚܙܶܢܘ be sad! lo mёḥzonitu! ܠܐ ܡܷܚܙܳܢܝܬܘ don’t be sad!

 

e) Object marking in the present I

In the present the object is expressed through an object particle that follows the verb, which can however also be attached to the verb as a suffix. As an independent particle, the object has the following forms:

 

Singular

Plural

3. P. (m.)

le

ܠܶܗ

alle

ܐܠܠܶܗ

3. P. (f.)

la

ܠܰܗ

2. P. (m.)

lux

ܠܘܟ݂

lxu

ܠܟ݂ܘ

2. P. (f.)

lax

ܠܰܟ݂

1. P.

li

ܠܝ

lan

ܠܰܢ

 

Much more frequent is the attachment of the object to the verb form as a suffix. This can change both the verb form and the object marker. For clarification here the suffixes of present form, 1. f. / m. in the singular:

1. f.Sg. korёḥmono ܟܳܪܷܚܡܳܢܐ + le ܠܶܗ korёḥmalle ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܠܠܶܗ I love him
      + la ܠܰܗ korёḥmalla ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܠܠܰܗ I love her
      + lux ܠܘܟ݂ korёḥmallux ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܠܠܘܟ݂ I love you (m.sg.)
      + lax ܠܰܟ݂ korёḥmallax ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܠܠܰܟ݂ I love you (f.sg.)
      + alle ܐܰܠܠܶܗ korёḥmanne ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܢܢܶܗ I love them
      + lxu ܠܟ݂ܘ korёḥmanxu ܟܳܪܷܚܡܰܢܟ݂ܘ I love you (pl.)
  kёbcono ܟܷܐܒܥܳܢܐ + li ܠܝ kёbcalli ܟܷܐܒܥܰܠܠܝ I would like (for me)
      + lan ܠܰܢ kёbcallan ܟܷܐܒܥܰܠܠܰܢ I would like (for) us
1.m.Sg. koroḥamno ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܐ + le ܠܶܗ koroḥamne ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܶܗ I love him
      + la ܠܰܗ koroḥamna ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܰܗ I love her
      + lux ܠܘܟ݂ koroḥamnux ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܘܟ݂ I love you (m.sg.)
      + lax ܠܰܟ݂ koroḥamnax ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܰܟ݂ I love you (f.sg.)
      + alle ܐܰܠܠܶܗ koroḥamnanne ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܰܢܢܶܗ I love them
      + lxu ܠܟ݂ܘ koroḥamnanxu ܟܳܪܳܚܰܡܢܰܢܟ݂ܘ I love you (pl.)
  kobacno ܟܳܐܒܰܥܢܐ + li ܠܝ kobacni ܟܳܐܒܰܥܢܝ I would like (for me)
      + lan ܠܰܢ kobacnan ܟܳܐܒܰܥܢܰܢ I would like (for) us

A detailed discussion of the object marking of the verb follows in Level B of this course.